Get Your Final Year Project Topic and Materials: March 2016

Wednesday, March 23, 2016


COURSE OBJECTIVE: To expose the participants to rules guiding job interviews and capacity or ability to package good CV and proposal.


As they say, an idle man is the devils workshop. If one is busy on his or her job, he/she will not have the time to giving thoughts to unreasonable things, so it is advisable for one to be busy with work. Also if you are working, it would aid one to earn good rewards for a successful living.
    For one to achieve this, you must work. As a result of this, it is paramount to know the rules or principles that will help you to be successful in job interviews, when such opportunity presents itself.


You work because of the expected derivable benefits in terms of satisfaction but most importantly, because of inherent of the opportunity cost.


A job can be defined as one or more positions or family or a group that can be treated similarly or dissimilarly held and for sometimes used functionally or tentatively mainly for administrative purposes. It can be a task, a duty or an assignment.

TASK: A task is a specific activity performed within a duration of time.

DUTY: It is an economic activity which one performs and it is not time bound.

ASSIGNMENT: It is an economic activity taken by an individual or a group of persons which is specific and time bound e.g. environmental sanitation at the end of the month.

JOB ANALYSIS: Denotes whom the employees report to.

JOB SPECIFICATION: Denotes the employee’s qualification, skill, vast experience etc.

JOB DESCRIPTION: denotes the duties, tasks, assignment and total jobs the employee is supposed to do as it is expected that performanace is out to be optional.

RECRUITMENT: It is a systematic, organized, formalized process of hiring people. More so, it is the selection of potential applicants from a pool of unemployed persons. Itis the selecting of people who are well qualified to match the talents with the job requirements.

TEST: It is the first stage of recruitment. Test is defines as a mesurement of the testee’s mental and conceptual capability by the tester.


It is verbal, mutual communicative devices where the interviewer and interviewee interact interpret and consummate discussions.


  1. STRUCTURED INTERVIEW: it is a restrictive interview basically on specification or experience.

  2. UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW: it is a broader and encyclopedia. The interview is questioned on a general area.

  3. STRUCTURED AND UNSTRUCTURED: Hybrid of both circumstantial, it depends on the the deposition of the interview panel who may combine both to question the interview.



  2. The interviewee must make sure he/she arrives at the venue of the interview in time. Do not rush into the interview venue.


    having confidence in yourself. Believe in yourself. Anxiety is the fear of the unknown, of course you don’t know the question they would ask and what would be the outcome of the interview, but remember several occassions where you were in such conditions and at the end of it you made success, if you do that confidence will come, confidence make you easy understand every question they ask you. If you even know the question without be confidence you may not be able to answer question.


  5. Make sure you dress well, wear good colour combinations with a suitable pair of shoes, be sure that the style of the cloth you will wear to the interview is an official wear. Ensure your hairstyle is also nice and suitable to the kind of job interview you are being called for.


  7. Be very careful with the way you behave on, during, after the interview when you are still within the venue where the interview was conducted. Create a constructive attitude and character within the period of time you will be with the interviewers. Make sure you convince them with your character that you can deliver to that job youapplied for. When you enter into the interview room or hall make sure you do not sit down until you are asked to do so.
    1. Make sure you know the job requirements or what the job require from me before the interview, do your research along the line of your job.
    2. Learn about your employers, study the organisation you applied to.
    3. Understand before you answer questions. Ensure that your answers are correct and when answering questions, go straight to the point.



    A curriculum vitae (CV) is a more comprehensive document that details ALL your past education, experiences, and competencies, including public presentations, academic writing and professional development. It’s designed to introduce you to employers in academics, advanced research, post-secondary teaching and fine arts.


    A résumé is a document that summarizes your education, experiences, and competencies. It’s designed to introduce you to an employer and highlight your qualifications for a specific job or type of work.

    The terms résumé and CV are sometimes used interchangeably. However, a résumé is used for work search, and a CV is used when applying for contracts, advanced research or post-secondary teaching positions. For those who use the two terms synonymously, the terms “academic résumé” or “academic CV” are often used to differentiate between advanced research and post-secondary teaching documents.


    Both a resume and a CV are meant to encourage an employer or a supervisor to consider you:
    • as an employee
    • as a candidate for further studies
    • as the right fit for a contract


    • CVs are focused on academic work with an emphasis on research and teaching while resumes are focused on nonacademic work with an emphasis on related competencies (skills, knowledge and attributes)
    • CVs aim to provide comprehensive information while resumes aim to summarize key information
    • CVs are often long – 5, 10, 20 or more pages - while resumes are generally 1 to 2 pages maximum


    You can use a resume when you’re:
    • applying for work
    • networking with potential employers
    • applying for some graduate schools, co-op programs, internships, scholarships, etc.
    • participating in events like career fairs or recruiting events


    You can use a CV when you’re:
    • applying for work and/or contracts in academics, advanced research, post-secondary teaching, and fine arts
    • applying for graduate school, scholarships, etc.
    • showcasing your background prior to a presentation


    Required on a CV
    1. Personal contact information
    2. Education and training
    3. Professional affiliations
    4. Awards and distinctoins
    5. Research interests 6. Research experience
    7. Teaching experience
    8. Publications and presentations 9.References
    Optional on a CV
    1. Objective
    2. Summary or profile
    3. Professional service
    4. Competencies
    5. Relevant work experience


    Required on a resume
    1. Personal contact information
    2. Education
    3. Competencies/accomplishments
    4. Work experience
    5. References

    Optional on a resume

    1. Objective
    2. Professional profile/summary
    3. Volunteer experience
    4. community involvement
    5. Technical expertise
    6. Professional memberships or affiliations
    7. Additional training
    8. Professional credentials/licenses
    9. Interests

Tuesday, March 22, 2016




This is a common issue in the course of researching in an academic situation. The ideologies of the supervisor and the students might not always be similar.
This should however be handled with caution as a strained relationship would affect the tone of the research work, the drive of both parties, the final grade assigned to the student and the psyche of the student even. The conflict here is assumed nothing physical but any that might hinder or slow down the pace of work between both parties.
The possible causes of this conflict are numerous. A few of them include:
Prior knowledge: If the Supervisor has had contact with the student or heard about the students attitude or grade, this might lead to pre-formed notions about the student, even before their first appointment. Especially if the whole students were distributed randomly to different lecturers in the department for supervision. A minor slip from the student could elicit into reactions of unimaginable proportions from the supervisor. This is why students are advised to be of good attitude, as their reputation precedes them.
Very busy supervisor: This is another valid point that is common in our Nigerian situation. The supervisor being always in one meeting or the other, working on one project or the other could also lead the student to developing certain issues with the supervisor as well. This could affect the student's dedication to the cause and lead to friction when the supervisor finally creates time and not deliver or meet up with the student's standard.
Student's attitude: This is when the student is accustomed to disappointing on projects deliverables and not turning in drafts when agreed. This could provoke the supervisor. A student's manner of speech, laziness and disobedience to rules is also included.
Different ideologies: This is when the supervisor is thinking in one direction and the student/researcher in another. The supervisor could be taking the research into a deeper dimension, while the student would have loved surface work. This becomes evident as the student grumbles and defies the order of the supervisor. The supervisor could be forced to develop an indifferent attitude to the plight of the student/researcher and this could be detrimental when the concerns of the student is now genuine.
Plagiarism: This is common with lazy students. They look for related articles and just copy and paste as against the industry required of them by the supervisor. This would definitely take the relationship in a southward direction.
Inefficient supervisor: This is when the supervisor specialises in another sub-division on a department and is required to supervise a student/researcher in another. This could frustrate the student as the student would be left to do the bulk of the work on his/her own. The supervisor would just be relegated to approvals. This might give room for a little friction.
Conclusion These are some of the reasons that could result in minor confrontations, disagreements, and friction of some sort during research work between students/researchers and their supervisors. It is advised that each supervisor treats the student differently, relates with them openly with both parties working hard to achieve the common goal, which should have been well-defined form the beginning.

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Monday, March 21, 2016



We were assembled. We argued. We were at each other's throats. Then we settled. We laughed hard. We played, prayed and hoped. Together. We presented. We failed. We were blamed altogether. Then we pointed accusing fingers at each other. Finally, we accepted our fate and moved on.
This is a condensed depiction of what happened in a group research project I was recently involved in. You see in life, at some point we would all have to be engaged in group work of some sort.
In our case, we were asked to work on the refining of castor oil. As chemical engineering students, this was to entail the process description, materials sizing, process design and simulation, full plant layout, economical and environmental considerations and what-have-you. It was to be massive.
You can imagine the tussle, utter confusion and nervousness that would ensue at first. Group projects? Different shades of experiences, especially my class which is a basic composition of individuals with sizeable age difference from various tribes, with different ideologies and religious beliefs. Sure, different temperaments, the hardworking and the lazy ones, as well as the smart ones and otherwise.
This is a microcosm of the demography available in most settings. The crux is now handling this successfully, especially in the critical area of research!
Firstly, in academic environments most times, the members do not get to choose their teams. The instructors divide available students into groups, on whatever basis they decide to employ.
In our case, each member was supposed to take a part at the presentation after detailed research work. Some forgot theirs; some were too dazed to speak; some couldn't answer questions thrown at them by the panel. Despite some not showing up at meetings, they just presented their parts well and added to the morale of the presentation. Some, despite the hard work, slipped and it was really disappointing. Many didn't even follow the plan when it got to their turn. Some, I felt like taking excuse and slapping sense into them. Gosh! Some members even started crying at the presentation when theirs went bad. Old people oh! You can imagine. After trading blames and we dispersed, I didn't eat that night. I just kept asking how a seemingly well-planned work went awry.
Group research projects must just be well -handled to enjoy maximum satisfaction! There were some things we did not do at all or approached wrongly.
The first thing I suggest is for the leader, if available, to establish calm. If none, any outspoken member should call for a meeting and one should be selected first. One, that all members would likely listen to. One with mental stability and emotional intelligence. A leader, not necessarily the most brilliant or the eldest.
Then meeting period chosen. In our case, we had to consider the Muslims' prayer period and set that as our mini-break each time. The schedule of everybody in the team is to be considered but the final time should be in favour of the majority, in most situations. The venues and other basics like rules at meetings, kinds of words acceptable at the meetings et al should be sorted out as well.
Next, the team needs to understand the theme very well. The entire length and breadth. Then all should be encouraged to read around the theme so a basic scope of work is drafted out.
The beauty of group research projects is that there are supposed to be more hands available, more finance, increased knowledge source and the stress distributed. Even as this is true, the ills can be terrifying.
After the scope of work is defined, the strengths of the team members should be evaluated. Some are bold hence relaxed at presentations; some are good at typing and can use the required softwares better; some are better at content writing or deep intellectual work while other are proficient at just editing. This is critical to maximise the gains of team work in research.
The leader should be wise whilst delegating members to various tasks. The seemingly 'lazy' members should be paired with seemingly 'hardworking' ones. Each sub-group should brief the general team at meetings with all members taking note, as in some presentations, a general score is given to all team members, hence all should be knowledgeable about each part, to be able to represent the team well. The entire group should be accommodating of other member's ignorance and rant, even if it is irrelevant. As a matter of fact, the freedom of speech rule is usually advised. However, a limit is to be established, so reasonable time is not expended in irrelevant discussions. Resentments should be handled with caution by the leader as well, as it would definitely arise due to different interests in the course of the research. A support system should be set up by the leader as well. For example, the indigent members who cannot meet up with financial expectations or the more physically capable assisting the others, and so forth.
After the presentations, no matter the disappointments and embarrassments, the team should stay positive. No accusations no matter how the situation. Lessons should be learnt and the group members urged to move on. The presentations should be rehearsed before time. Rules during presentations should be clear and all members should stick to it. Religiously.
Group research project is not death sentence. Many loathe it but if handled like this, the members would spend less time transferring their spittle in the name of quarrelling.

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Undergraduate research project is an independent effort required of students in tertiary institutions. The students, though supervised by an academic staff, are to carry out a pre-determined research within the constraints of their study.
The supervisor is primarily to receive proposals of the research interest, approve it, provide guidance and assess the work at the end. An external supervisor is usual, to provide an external and independent assessment of their research work.
The proposal for the topic is to include the intended subject of study, a brief description, justification for the work, aims and milestones, software and hardware to be employed, assumptions to be made, the methodologies involved and the references.
There are standards in the research build-up, actual research, and presentation and print submissions. These put the students in shape for the strict rules they are to face after-school.
In developing the content, there are certain guidelines that would be beneficial.
The work is usually divided into five chapters (broadly) before any further divisions.
Hence the typical formats as such:

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Content
  • List Of Tables
  • List Of Figures
  • List Of Symbols/ Nomenclature (Where Applicable)
  • Main Work (Chapter One To Five)
  • References
  • Appendices (Where Applicable)

Title page: Here, the name of the institution is put, the title of the report, the name of the Author, then the reason for the report (this is why it is required that students add that it is 'in partial fulfilment of the course requirement required for the award of the B.Sc degree.' Then the date is added.
Approval page: The name of the institution and department, then a statement signifying approval for the work by the supervisor, head of department and external supervisor. Space is reserved for signatures of all listed parties as well.
Dedication page: This is where the researcher dedicate the research to a deity, someone, dead or/and alive. This is different from the acknowledgement.
Acknowledgement: The researcher here writes to appreciate all that contributed, (technical, financial, moral and otherwise) to the success of the research.
Abstract: This is the synopsis of the research work. It is often written last with the tense in past. Usually less than 100 words summarizing the problem statement, the methodology employed, the findings, conclusion and recommendations. This should be in a single paragraph and the word limit not exceeded.
Table of content: The main heading s and sub-headings and page numbers are listed. This allows for easy page identification and reference. The table of content should be edited at the final stage as well, to correctly capture the reflections in the work.
List of tables/figures/symbols: The list is to aid the reader in locating tables/figures/symbols. It should contain the tag numbers, tag which reflects the content and the page numbers. It should be well-numbered and unambiguous. In the main content, the figure/table should be well-labelled.

(The body of the work)

Chapter One: This is usually the introduction.

This describes the background, scope and purpose of the research. The rest of the report should be tied to the information supplied. The researcher should strive to present sufficient details regarding why the study was carried out. It shouldn't be rushed, a gradual build-up of the content from bottom to top is ideal. It should be closed with a linking paragraph that would disclose the objectives, constraints and limitations.

Chapter two: This is usually the literature theoretical review.

This presents basically, the work done by others. It is on the ground work done by others that the current research is to be based, hence the review. It sums up the pros and cons of all past work but due credit should be given to the various Authors (see the guide on referencing on this website). The use of quotations should be less in use, more of paraphrasing (reading and making out meaning in your own words), making comments in the review is great as well, it just depends on the context.

Chapter three: This is usually the research methodology.

Here the language used should be in past tense. It is a sum-up of the research design, procedures, the area and population of study. The data sampling and data sources are detailed as well. The method used, from all alternatives, should also be justified. The materials and equipment used is also included.

Chapter four: This is usually for data presentation and analysis (results and discussion).

The results obtained in the research are presented here. Visual aids like graphs, charts and the likes should be used as well. The results should be discussed then compared with results of past Authors. The effects and applications of the results should be detailed as well.

Chapter five: This part houses the conclusions and recommendations.

From the results of the research, conclusions are made, then suggestions for improvement for other researchers with similar interest. Based on the whole happenings, recommendations are proffered.

References: This is a list of all the relevant journals, books and all sources of information consulted in the research work, either online or print. Plagiarism should be avoided at all costs, all quoted and exact words of different sources should be properly referenced, in-text and at the references' list/bibliography. MLA, APA and Chicago style are the commonest referencing styles. (See a comprehensive guide on this blog)

Appendices: This is for all extra materials that were not added to the body of the work. This encapsulates extensive proofs, official data from case study, list of parameters, et al.

P.S: After writing, the researcher should painstakingly proofread the whole content for grammatical and spelling errors. This could be very distracting while reading the material.
The page numbers are easily distorted by changing font size and type, spacing et al. The final submission should be very clear, error-free(to a large degree) and as required by standard.

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For a research to be termed acceptable to your research coordinator or project supervisor, the preliminary pages of the work must be all encompassing and concise enough to make great meaning. Preliminary pages are those write ups that come before the chapter one of every project or research work.
Standard preliminary pages has the following features in these chronological order
Cover page
Table of contents
s Cover page of the research work
The cover page of a research page is the first page of the work which contains:

  • The full topic of the project work.
  • The case study of the project/research work.
  • The researchers/student’s name, starting with the surname and registration number.
  • The institution of study.
  • The year and month the project work was completed.
  • The above specifications must be done with block letters.

Below is an example of a cover page of a project work:




Being A Research Project Submitted To The School Of Computer Science, Mathematics And Information Technology In Partial Fulfillment For The Requirement Of The Award Of Bachelor Degree In Computer Engineering Technology.


APRIL, 2016

Declaration of the research work

Every research work must be deemed original and void of plagiarism. To this effect the declaration is more of an affidavit stating in clear terms that the work is an original work and was not copied from any source. In declaring that your work as a researcher is original, it has to be done with your full name and the full name of the researcher observer or project supervisor who guided you through the research work and the date the research was concluded.
Below is an example of a declaration of a research work:


We declare that the work in the project report entitled Design And Implementation Of Student Project Management And Allocation Systemhas been performed by IkuejawaAbiolaOladeji and Ekpenyong victor edemin the School ofComputer Science, mathematics and information technology under the supervision of Mr. Muyiwa.
The information derived from the literature has been duly acknowledged in thetext and a list of references provided. No part of this project report was previously presented for another degree or diploma at any university.

__________________  __________________   ______________

Name Of Student                 Signature                     Date

Certification of the research work

As the name depicts, certification of a research work is just a confirmation that the work or research was actually embarked upon by you. In drafting your certification of the research work, it has to come with your full name beginning with your surname followed by your other names, your registration number, space for the name date and signature of your project supervisor and finally a space for the name, signature and date of the external supervisor.
Below is an example of a certification of a project work:


This is to certify that this project was written by Ikuejawa Abiola Oladeji with matriculation number 0907IT01849 and Ekpenyong victor edem with matriculation number 0907IT01565 and that the project has been read and approved having met the requirements for the award of Bachelor degree, BSC in COMPUTER ENGINEERING, Houdegbe North American University, Benin Republic.
The copy right of this project belongs to the institution where the project was carried out, under the supervision of;

____________________     _______________________


(Project Supervisor)

____________________     ___________________________


(Dean of the School)

Dedication of the research work

Dedication is one of the preliminary pages of a research work. It has to do with dedicating the complete work to loved ones or people your hold in high regard. Below is an example of a dedication of a research work:


This work is dedicated to the Almighty God who sustained our life during the study. It is also dedicated to our lovely parents Mr and Mrs Ikuejawa and Mr and Mrs Ekpenypng To my siblings; ayodele obadiah, oyindamola ikuejawa for their love and supports.
Also to our friends AmusaAzeezSewubo, Akpan Jeremiah, KushehinOlakunle and Godknows Isaac.

Acknowledgement of the research work

This is where the researcher appreciates people who contributed directly or indirectly in the actualization of the project work. Acknowledgement in a research work takes into cognizance, your project or research supervisor for availing his time to making your work a success, your parents or loved ones for morally and financially supporting you through this work and other people you may have in mind for what they did towards their direct or indirect contribution to the success of your work.Below is an example


With a joyful heart and gratitude to God we lack words and space to appreciate all the contributors to the success of not just this research work but our academic carrier, however we wish to mention but a few. Our humble appreciation goes to our family who even in the stormy weather of our life’s have relentlessly provided for us in every way they could until this day, We wish to say a big thank you to them and hope God in his infinite mercy guide them all through. We appreciate the efforts of all ourclose friends who have pushed us and stayed beside us in our trial times, I also wish to identify in person the likes of Pastor Layo Awojobi and Pastor Bright Okpocha for their spiritual support.
   To my Supervisors, Mr MUYIWA, I lack the right words to use for your competency, your joint effort in monitoring my research work have been of great help to me as I now derive joy performing research work despite my previous hatred for research. I say keep the flag flying, and to all those who I could not mention but have however contributed to my academic pursuit, may God bless you all. I also cannot hide my sincere appreciation to all the pastors of God Fold Church. At this point, I acknowledge my team of programmers Mr. Rober tEbafua for his effort which made this project a success.


Check my post on how to write abstract



Research work could take the most unexpected twist and turn. It is a nerve-racking experience. Usually, if approached in a haphazard manner, valuable time could be lost.
In big research corporations, each researcher has a set of responsibilities and area of focus, this might help and aid timely completion of research work. However, in personal or unstructured research work, these tips on time management are life-saving. Without any bias to any form of research, these tips are generally applicable.
1. Read up! This is the first thing to do to ensure completion of research in the quickest possible timeframe. There is no end to the amount of underground pre-knowledge on any research work to be embarked upon. This will help guide in decision-making during the research.
2. Quite naturally, the first is to make a plan or strategy from the onset. This has been rehashed numerous times. But the key to the plan or strategy working out eventually is doing the right research project that you have the capacity, innate or available, to complete the research, on time! List all possible requirements; equipments and expertise, risks involved, financial commitment, raw materials, ambience et al and have them in place or at least in consideration.
3. Define the scope. This cannot be over-emphasized; researches could expand beyond the ends of the world. Before going further, a possible scope should be in mind. This should be after the underground work. The key is sticking to your guns, except in experimental research where the results could decide the next action.
4. Break actions into smaller units and understand in details each division. Place value on each division. Placing value would have to be in consonance with your supervisor's interest and guidance.
5. Prioritise the activities based on their value and happenings in the course of the research. Off all divisions, some would have a higher value, so prioritize on that.
6. Have a life cycle for each of the value. Let the tasks be accomplishable in bits. Each having a time bound. Specifically seek to accomplish them within specific milestones with reminders of the task schedule.
For example, instead of saying: 'Monday to Wednesday, project chapter one,' you could divide it in tad bits. Firstly, getting the underground data or theory; then dividing the chapter into sections; writing the first draft without editing - uninterrupted, straight from memory; then editing after writing, paragraph by paragraph; then using plagiarism checker, grammatical errors checker, spell checker et al before submitting to your supervisor for possible corrections. If there are, then finish up as required.
The break into phases like this helps you achieve specifics. If time is used up like this, it is more effective than having a larger task spread over a certain period; it might take a longer period, then messing up the initial plan or if shorter, the extra time could be spent less effectively than achieving the scheduled bit of work.
7. Put in place a support system. It could be a higher personality you report to or discuss with. This helps your psyche, as you'd have to meet expectations and/or impress, helping you tap into the deepest part of your creativity. If you attach huge importance to this, you'd likely want to sit up more to your responsibilities.
8. Being online for theory could waste time, get what you think you might need, shut yourself out and just work. When you are deficient on some part after everything, go back and fill it up. It could be very distracting to get the required while online at the same time. Social media is another leech.
It is advisable you have a working period and flexible time. On your working period, ruthlessly protect your personal time. Don't easily give in to non-relevant activities. These could distract work and extend the time to complete any phase of your research work.
9. Plan base on happenings, consider power and all other infrastructures you might require for your work. For example, as a student using the laboratory of your school, there would be times when power would be more stable or when the laboratory would be less in use, plan in that regard to avoid been stranded or waiting in turn. Optimize available time basically, depending on the situation at any point in time.
10. Seeking perfection is one of the biggest thief of time. Editing and fine-tuning on end. After a certain point, its best you declare victory and move on, especially when you exceed the time bound and you close in on the picture in mind.

Saturday, March 19, 2016



When I wrote ‘Making Awesome Presentations: Useful Tips for Project Defense’, I never knew it was going to be a great success story. So many success stories and commendations from over 50,000 readers were just enough to make my year and give me more grace to write more. Well, enough of the hyping! That great piece was still lacking some smaller pieces to make it totally awesome as some ‘Oliver Twist-Like’ fans still needed more to it. Questions like, what should we expect on the D-Day? What type of Questions do they committee members ask? Can you suggest possible questions and answers that will be asked when defending a dissertation or thesis paper? These questions fill my mail box by the day and since I adore my readers, I have decided to write a sequel to ‘Making Awesome Presentations’. This time around, with the help of some senior lecturers, friends and my own experience, I have compiled some common questions you may face on your defense day and suggested answers/approach to these questions. So as usual, Enjoy!

Top 25 Likely Project Defense Questions and Answers

Below are likely questions you may face in a defense room. Take note of these questions and suggested answers, do good by researching more and not limiting yourself to just these questions.

Question 1: In few sentences, can you tell us what your study is all about?

The question is simple right? Many professors will tell you that most students get choked on a question like this. Anyways the question is simple, but a bit technical. To answer this question, you need to know every detail of your research project from chapters one to the end. The question needs an answer in form of a summary of the entire study, therefore, to ace this particular question you need to know every detail in your abstract. If you wrote a good abstract, this question will be a cross over for you.

Question 2: What is your motivation for this study?

Now you must be careful here. This question can be very tricky and it goes a long way in convincing your panel members that your study is worth their time. To answer this question, you may decide to elaborate on the problem investigated in the study. Your zeal to solve this problem becomes your motivation. Do not state financial reasons or the need to graduate as a motivation as you may easily go off point.

Question 3: How will this study contribute to the body of knowledge?

At some point the need for justification will arise and that is when you will be asked to mention how your study will add to the body of knowledge if approved. Here you will need to use your methods, case study or any unique model or conceptual framework used in the study to defend it. For more information on how to tackle this particular question read my on how to contribute to the body of knowledge

Question 4: What is the significance of the study?

Just like stating how your study will contribute to the body of knowledge, you will need to state the importance of your study. To answer this question, you will need to highlight how your study will aid the government in policy development and implementation, how it will help other students who may wish to conduct research studies on the subject matter and how organizations and the society will benefit from your study.

Question 5: Did you bridge any gap from your study?

Every research study must have a problem. Your ability to solve this problem and explore into areas not yet researched on gives you the full marks allocated for answering this question. You must be able to convince the committee members that your approach is unique and it has covered areas where much have not been done by other researchers.

Question 6: What limitations did you encounter?

This is another simple but tricky question. Most times the question is not asked to sympathize with you, rather to get loopholes to criticize your work. To answer this question, you must be careful with words as you may implicate yourself. Be careful enough not to sell out yourself. Do not discourse limitations in your methods or data analysis techniques as this may imply that your study may be biased or not well researched. Use simple limitations like difficulties encountered in combining lectures and project instead of limiting your study.

Question 7: What are your findings?

At this point it is expected of you to present your results or findings from the study in a clear and concise manner. Always link your findings to your research objectives/questions. This will make your panel members to easily be carried along.

Question 8: What Methods or Sampling Technique did you employ?

To answer this question, you must be familiar with your research methodology. Your chapter three (in Most Projects) must be at your fingertips. Your ability to justify your sample size and technique will be highly rewarded here.

Question 9: Why choose this method?

As discoursed above, you should not only state a particular method for the study. You must also be ready and able to justify why you chose the method in a convincing manner. At this point you are free to quote sources or similar studies where such methods were adopted.

Question 10: Based on your findings what are your recommendations?

Recommendations are very vital in every research study and should not be joked with. In essence you should know your recommendations off hand

Question 11: Based on your findings what areas will you suggest for future research?

Questions like this are just there to test your reasoning and authority in your research area. Based on your findings in a manageable scope, you should be able to suggest future research areas in line with your study. For example, if I researched on the challenges of personal income tax collection in Nigeria, a good area for further study will be in other forms of taxation such as VAT, Company tax etc.

Question 12: How can your research study be put into practice?

Easy for the computer scientist and engineering students, but a bit tough for management and social sciences since most management/social science projects are more of abstract in nature. However, you should try your best to be realistic here. Relate your study to current trends in your environment, office, economy, government, schools, church etc. Use of relevant examples and illustrations will score you good point here.

Question 13: How would you summarize your study to a practitioner in a few sentence?

Your ability to convey technical information from the study will score you good points here.

Question 14: What would you change if you were to conduct the study again?

Hmmm. Be careful! Do not be too jovial. There is a loophole here! Just like your limitations, this question can be asked to identify your week points.

Question 15: What is your measurement Instrument?

In simple terms, what data collection method did you employ for the study? Here you state if questionnaires were distributed or data was gotten from secondary sources. For more information on measurement instruments ready my post on measurement instrument

Question 16: What are your research variables?

Here you will need to convince your panel members that you know what you are talking about. You need to explain your independent and dependent variable(s) to convince them that you are on point. Your variables are present in your project topic. You need to identify these variables and know their definitions as well to ace your defense.

Question 17: What are your research questions?

Very simple question. It should not take about 0.015 seconds to answer this question if you are fully prepared.

Question 18: What do you plan to do with your research project after Graduation?

Here you are at liberty to say your mind. If you intend to publish it, this is the best opportunity to discourse and interact with the committee members-maybe a professor there can help.

Question 19: What source of data was employed for the study?

At this point you have to state the source(s) you got data from. In general you have to state whether data was gotten from primary or secondary source or both. You can further convince the committee members by discoursing on literature reviewed for the study-both theoretical and empirical.

Question 20: What theories or theoretical framework is your study based on?

This is a very technical question but interesting. Before you step into the defense room, you should know at least two relevant theories that relate to your study. For example, the “impact of motivation on employee productivity” will be based on Maslow’s Theory and other theories of motivation. If you cannot find relevant theories to back up your study, consult your supervisor for help.

Question 21: How would you relate your findings to existing theories on the study?

To ace this question, one will have to read extensively. You should know existing theories on the subject matter as well as empirical studies too. Your ability to link your findings to previous research studies (Whether they agree or not) will go a long way in validating your study. You will score good points here trust me.

Question 22: What recommendations do you have for future research?

Your problem solving skill is put to test here. You should be able to identify areas that will need more research.

Question 23: What is the scope of the study?

This one is a cheap or should I say bonus question? Here you quickly state the delimitation of the study in brief.

Question 24: What question(s) do you have for the committee?

Not a likely question in our Nigerian context, but I have defended a seminar project where this question was asked and I was shocked to my marrows. This is an opportunity to interact with your committee members and ask some constructive questions. Do not ask silly or too difficult questions as the goal should be to make the committee members feel as the “boss”. It will also go a long way in showing that you are a brilliant individual.

Question 25: Do you have any closing comments?
This is praising time! Use this opportunity to thank your committee members for their time and questions. Tell them how much you have learnt from them and how you intend to correct errors (if any) identified in your work. This can go a long way in impressing your internal and external supervisors. All the best!
  • When confronted with a difficult question, adopt a strategy to make them rephrase or repeat the question. This will give you more time to think.
  • Before your defense day. Practice with your supervisor or your friends. Make them to drill you with likely questions.
  • Talk calmly with confidence. Do not talk too fast as this may pave way for tension and stage freight.
  • Read your project thoroughly. Know basic definitions and terms used in the study.
  • Expand the likely questions to 50. Feel free to add yours in the comment box below. Thanks and God bless you.
  • Your Friends May also Benefit. Please Share this Article With Your Loved Ones

Friday, March 18, 2016

Making Awesome Presentations: Useful Tips for Project Defense

Making Awesome Presentations: Useful Tips for Project Defense

Just imagine a project defence room where you are presenting your research work in such a fabulous way, and your panel members just can’t stop nodding, gazing at you with their mouths wide open and clapping non-stop for you…It is just an imagination, so wake up! Put more work to it by reading this article, apply it and pray your panel members do not turn your project defence to project attack!
Project defence has come to stay, and the only way to graduate in Nigerian universities is to at least defend what you have written (or copied and paste) in a convincing manner. Gone are the days when you could just copy and paste an article from the internet and dump for your school. Our Nigerian school system is changing from dumping grounds to speech oriented institutions, which means that you must be good at presentations in order to scale through. At times students confuse themselves with content of their work. The truth is that it is better to be more confident with a poor content, than to be un-able to defend an excellent research work.
In this article, I am going to give out some useful tips and tricks on how you can have an awesome project defence and presentation. In order to make reading this article more pleasurable, I am going to give tips on how what to do before the defence day, on the defence day, and inside the defence room. So enjoy!


First before your project defence, you must ensure you have a romantic relationship with your project topic and the whole content. When I say ‘romantic relationship’, I mean your research topic or research thesis must be of great interest to you. If your topic is too difficult or it was imposed on you by your project supervisor, you better start loving the topic or better still; look for a way to get it changed for you. In my little experience, I have discovered that students who hate their topics usually have problems flowing in the defence room, and it can mean bad for you. One trick to choose a nice research topic is by looking for subjects that you love talking about. If you’re a car freak, you should be considering topics like ‘the impact of official cars on employee productivity’. You would be amazed how this simple trick will go a long way in helping you


Second, do adequate research on your topic. Before defending or presenting your project, you should source for similar materials on your topic. Focus on how the problem was identified and addressed. Do not dream of having an awesome presentation if you do not know common terminologies associated with your topic. Identify your keywords, variables, background of the study, history of the study and all the variables before your defence date. If you writing on ‘employee motivation and its impact on productivity, you should be able to know your two variables-‘employee motivation’ and ‘productivity’.

Third, know your motivation for the study or research. Most final year students in Nigeria defending their projects do not perform well because, they fail to identify their motives for the study. The motivation for your study is probably the first answer to numerous questions you may be asked in the defence room. Before a research is undertaken, there is usually a problem to solve. The desire to solve that problem becomes your motivation for the study. Please do not use money, or the need to graduate as motivations for your study. Motivation for the study is best applied in questions like ‘why undertake this study’? ‘Tell us about your work’?

Fourth, know your strength as well as your weaknesses. Knowing your strengths and weaknesses will help you prepare a backup plan in case the direction of the defence changed in an unfavourable way.
Fifth, discuss with professionals in your research field and do group discussions with friends. Make your friends your panel members, and defend in front of them. Tell them to criticize and ask numerous questions. With this little training you will be tuning your mind set for what a defence room will look like. You can also seek professional help.


On the day of defence, a lot of students panic and some may even forget their project topics. Just apply the following tricks and tips and you will be just fine!
First, rehearse with friends again. Look for people to discuss your project with all over again. This will help you remember your key points.
Second, develop good self-esteem and confidence. Before you enter the defence room, make use of some good self-esteem! Think well about yourself, and have in mind that these professors and senior lecturers you are going to face are human beings that do not know everything. So be in control. See yourself as someone going to lecture a bunch of people that do not know much. Remember 90% of your fears cannot be seen at first, unless you start showing it.


• Knock first before you enter.
• Greet the panel members with lots of smile
• Wait for your first question
• Answer with great confidence. While answering your questions look straight into the eyes of your panel members, and never be rude. All is well!



For any meaningful and worthwhile to be carried out, data from either a secondary or primary means of data collection are required. In other to gain entrance to organizations understudy to carry out a research, a formal permission has to be employed to enable a welcome reception and a conducive environment for your research. Writing a letter of permission to conduct research in any organization basically comes in two ways

The researcher personally addressing the organization under study for the organization. Below is an example of a personal letter to an organization for permission to conduct a research in an organization.

No 13 Umoren street,
Opp. Gate medical center,
Off Aka road,
Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State.
20th March, 2016.

The general manager,
Union assurance plc,
No 33 Oshodi- Apapa Express way, Lagos state.



I am a student of Higher National Diploma in Kaduna state polytechnic, Kaduna State, department of insurance undertaking a research on the topic “Assessment of adequate risk recognition and management in Nigeria insurance companies. You are kindly requested to assist in providing sincere opinion or response to the questions contained in this questionnaire. All information provided will be treated strictly as confidential and purely for academic purpose. Looking forward to your favourable response.

Ikuejawa Abiola Oladeji.

The institution of the researcher personally addressing the organization under study for the research/study. Below is an example of an institution to an organization for permission to conduct a research.

Uyo City polytechnic,
Department of Accountancy,
College of Business and Management studies,
P.M.B 2021,
Uyo, Akwa Ibom state.
20th November, 2015.

The general manager,
Union assurance plc,
No 33 Oshodi- Apapa Express way, Lagos state.
Dear Sir,

Mr. Ikuejawa Abiola Oladeji is a bonafide student of Uyo City polytechnic, department of accountancy, Akwa Ibom state, currently enrolled in the three year HND program in the field of accountancy. As part of the requirement of the HND degree, he is required to complete the project in the given field. This should identically be a live project on an ongoing problem faced by the organization, under the supervision of a company guide. The objective of the project is to enable students to develop and further the skills and knowledge gained on the course by applying them to the analysis of a specific business problem or issue via a substantial piece of independent work carried out over an extended period.
Evaluation of the project will be based on a written report, as well as an oral presentation, after which a certificate of completion should be given by the organization.
I would be grateful if an opportunity could be given to Mr. Ikuejawa Abiola Oladeji to work on such a project in your esteemed organization.
Looking forward to your positive response.

Head- Department of Accounting.

In replying letters of permissions from schools or individuals, most organizations find it difficult drafting responses, especially when the answer is in the affirmative. Below is a guide for organizations replying to institutions or individuals who are seeking to carry out a said research in their firm.

Julius Berger,
Head office: 10 shettima A.
Utako| Abuja FCT.
Tel: +2347069800000
20th March, 2016.

REF: JB|UYO|HRM|04|02|2015|0024, 25th November, 2015,
Mr. Ikuejawa Abiola Oladeji,
Department of Accounting,
Kaduna state polytechnic.
Kaduna state, Nigeria.


This letter will serve as authorization of Mr. Ikuejawa abiola Oladeji to conduct the research project entitled “impact of motivation on employees in construction industry of Nigeria” at our uyo permanent site.
Upon a review of the letter sent to us by your institution, we are glad to offer you an opportunity to conduct the same study in our organization. All interviews, filed surveys, observations around the site and the distribution of questionnaires are approved and will be duly supervised by the human resource unit.
If you have any concerns or require additional information, feel free to contact the unit. Thank you
Yours faithfully,
Okoro chidi
Personal coordinator
Julius Berger, Uyo


Approval of a project topic by your supervisor takes more than just a “supposedly good topic”. Projects or research are a technical write up that has to be relevant and all-encompassing in achieving its goals of improving the body of knowledge. Most researchers or students have been finding it difficult to get their project topics approved by their lecturers or project supervisors known as their project or research supervisors. so if you find yourself in this little problem of getting your project topic approved by your project supervisor, then follow this tips and unique tricks used to buy your supervisors heart to approve both my topic and also all you from chapter one to charter five. Below are the simple things that would get your supervisor approve your project topic without delay

Obtain a practical or interesting project/research topic

In trying to impress your supervisor in getting a project topic that would make him approve it quickly, you’ve got to get interesting and practical project topics. This would make your supervisor interested in your work which would result in easy and swift approval of your research topic. Boring topic should be avoided as this may make you have a stressful time trying to “sell” your project topic to your project supervisor. Look for a good project topics from anywhere you may get it (you can go to various Nigerian universities or meet someone that has already graduated and also you can get from the internet. And some very research oriented project websites.

Avoid popular topics or topics that have been recently worked on

Avoiding popular project topics or project topics that have been recently worked on can be achieved by having a chat with your supervisor. This singular gesture of having a chat with him/her would go a long way in getting to know several things about your project supervisor. Some of the things you should listen to are

1. The area of research your supervisor is interested in.
2. The project topics he has recently supervised or has good knowledge about.

This discussion with your project supervisor would save you from being in the same category of students whom project supervisors describe as lazy. Your chat with your project supervisor would help portray you as a hardworking student and this would save you the stress of your topic being rejected. It will equally make your project supervisor pick interest in your work which will dovetail into him assisting you in getting it done.

Topics with adequate problem statement

In choosing a project topic that will be swiftly approved by your project supervisor, the topic chosen should have a good problem statement. What this simply means is that there must be a cogent reason why the research has to be undertaken. Project supervisors are usually interested in the statement of the general problems of research or project topics as this would lead them to either reject or approve your project or research topic. The problems prompting you as a researcher into the study must be in focus so that your topic can be interesting enough for your project supervisor to approve. The more teething the problem leading you to the research is, the more your project supervisor would be willing to approve your project as this will make him interested in your work.

Topic must be related to your field of study

For a topic to be approved quickly by your project supervisor, that topic must be related to your field of study as this would be one of the important factors that will make your supervisor approve your project or research topic. The more relevant your topic is to your course of study the more you can be rest assured that your supervisor will approve your project topic. Topics related to your course of study would help you in drafting your aims and objectives and the problem statement of the research.

Availability of project materials in your choice topic

Aside choosing a topic related to your field of study, another factor that would make your project supervisor approve your work will be going for a topic whose materials are easy to source. Most times, project supervisors often ask these questions, and in most cases they may ask you to bring some of the materials you have for the project work, this is being done to ensure that your project or research topic can be effectively researched or undertaken. Availability of materials for a topic will go a long way avoiding the risk of being stalked up in the middle of the work or even outright cancellation of the work by your project supervisor.

Have a good grab of the subject matter

For your project topic to be approved speedily by your project supervisor, you need to have a good background of the topic. Having a good knowledge of the topic would help you answer questions your project supervisor might ask you prior to the approval of your topic and the whether your topic is approved or not depends on if you have a good grab of the subject matter. Project supervisors ask some questions before your topic is approved, good background knowledge of your topic would help you scale through such questions. You should be able to look beyond the chapter 1 and chapter two from the topic alone. This would send a signal of seriousness to your supervisor which will in turn endear him/her to you.

Cultivate a healthy relationship with your supervisor

Being in good terms with your project supervisor would do you more good than harm. Cultivating a relationship with you supervisor would help you be freer with him/her and also make him/her more connected to you. A direct consequence of this would be that he/she would always have your interest at heart and would correct you in a friendly manner if the need arises.



Choosing a suitable case study for a research is an essential part of the process of carrying out a research or study. A case study simply put is that geographical location or kind of data that would make your research to be judged powerful. A research is said to be powerful if the case study of that research reflects the hypothesis for the topic under study. In choosing a suitable case study for your research or study, one has to consider: .

The topic of the study/research.

In choosing a case study, a lot has to depend on the topic under study. A case study that is not in tandem to the topic may lead to an experiment whose conclusions and recommendation aren’t precise enough to be powerful and thus may lead to accepting a false null or alternative hypothesis. The topic of a study gives or shades light on the type of case study to employ in carrying out a research. .

A good example is a topic that has to do with school performance or school environment, employing a case study that falls outside a school environment may actually lead to responses from people who aren’t experienced in academic matters, the consequence of this would simply be that generalizations reached when the data is analysed may lead to rejection of an alternative hypothesis that should be accepted or acceptance of an alternative hypothesis that should be rejected thus affecting the power or precision of the research. So for selecting a suitable case study, a lot has to depend on the topic of the study. .

The topic of a research also tells us if a primary data or secondary data will be required for precision of the research. Certain topics especially in econometrics or economics discipline would require secondary method of collecting data e.g. published data instead of the primary means of collecting data like the interview or questionnaire method.
In other disciplines especially social sciences, the topic of a study simply put determines the case study that best fits it. For instance:
For a topic that centers on performance of firms or employees, a suitable case study should or must be an organization and the best form of data collection is through the primary means like the interview method or questionnaire distribution.
In conclusion, the topic of the research best tells us the nature of our case study and the best way to generate the data required for a powerful or précised research.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

How can I get the complete project if I order?

Once your payment is confirmed. Your Full/complete material will be send to your Email. After payment, send depositors name, transaction ID (for online payments), bank name, PHONE NUMBER and PROJECT TOPIC to +2248116276815, +22999336074 or Email Please you put the international code front of the two number you call.

How Will My Payment be Confirmed ?

Whether you make a bank deposit, Online Transfers or ATM transfers, Your details will reflect in our bank statements and alerts from our bankers. Name used as DEPOSITOR NAME for bank deposits are used to verify and confirm your payment. Online Transfers reflect Account Name of the Sender. This will also be used to verify and confirm payments made online. Transaction IDs will be used to verify payments made on our secure payment gateways, while

Locations will be used to verify and Confirm ATM transfers.

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.

How long does it take to get the complete project?<

Depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

How can i trust this site?

We are proudly Nigerians, and are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is unfortunate, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine. Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter 1 is always given on the site to prove to you that we got the material. If you are unable to view the free chapters 1 sends an email to with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say

Do you accept ATM payments and Online Transfers?

Yes. We accept ATM transfers and online payments. These payments carry your account name and number, so it’s easy for us to know it is your payment in-order to send your material(s) to you.

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

Yes it is a complete research project. We send complete project materials (i.e. chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data to your email address.