Get Your Final Year Project Topic and Materials: October 2017

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

An android based application to check the status of an ATM


Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION





1.1 Background of the Study
Mobile technology has really accelerate in terms of it advancement to the extent that it has limitlessly left mobile application developers with no choice but to continue in it manipulation of its usefulness over and over (Leng, 2011). Furthermore Mobile tools are much stylishly made these days, so smart and handy which give room for collection of data in our mobile phones. Mobile phone gadgets are now doing the works of Global Positioning system (GPS) navigation gadget, because of it sensibility in accessing vital information concerning present location of valuable assets, places, friends and family.
Accessibility of location based services via our mobile phones is possible; provided that the mobile network can be retrieved by our mobile phones to exploit the use of geographical position of the mobile phone has been a continuous achievement starting from the military and later to every man jack. These location based services (LBS) use the information, based on the available location of the user to provide services dependent on their geographic setting, (Kirk & Mark, 2003) and customize needs. GPS tracking is embedded in location based services as a support tool in making use of mobile web (Leng, 2011). LBS, it’s been considered at these points as those applications that entail a high level of exactness according to (Giaglis, Kourouthanassis & Tsamakos, 2003). As a result these with no stress user can easily access location like banks, hotels, colleges etc. Project aspires to adjust and influence the usage of location based services focusing mainly on ATM centres available in Kaduna State.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications mechanism that enables the users to carry out monetary transactions in a public places using credit card with no need of entering the bank. For that reason, users can effortlessly have their transaction completed by means of the ATM (Leng, 2011). On the other hand, people living in Lagos Satte are familiar with a particular ATM centre for performing their daily monetary transaction, at times when this ATM centres develops problem people are confused of which ATM centre to go to because they usually pass by several ATM centres but never take noticed of the location in which they are, so because of this they end up going to their Bank to be on the safer side. In addition for instance a foreigner, being his or her first time visiting Minna will find it difficult to locate a close by ATM centre when in need of cash urgently. For this reason this project will be solving a lots of problem in terms of locating an ATM centre closer to user current position and providing the user ability to access the status of that particular ATM centre.
1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study
The aim of this study is to develop an ATM finder (My ATM’s status) mobile web application. For easy location and broadcasting of the ATM’s status in Lagos State.
The specific objectives of this study are:
1. To develop a system that will capture ATM centres location using Global Positioning System (GPS) and status of the ATM.
2. To develop a system that will locate a close by ATM location from the user’s present position in Kaduna State.
3. To develop a system that will display the status of a particular ATM.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Ability to locate an ATM centre closer to user current position and also retrieving information about the status of ATM centre will draw the trust of people living in Lagos State, and also foreigners to approach any ATM centre on this system with no doubt .
1.5 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this study is to design and implement of an andriod base application to check the status of ATM. The proposed system is developed on hybrid application platform for mobile application. The objective of the system is to show user the ATM centre closer to him or her and the status of that ATM. The numbers of ATM centres covered in this project are 10 in numbers. Smart phones are recommended for this proposed system. Proposed systems are subjected to users in Kaduna State alone.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
This project is narrow in some ways stated below:
1. Cannot automatically generate ATM centre‘s status rather employ the ability of the feedback giving by the user.
2. Limited only to smart phone.
3. 10 ATM centres in Kaduna State.


1.7 Definition Of Terms
HTML CODE: - HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a type of computer language that is primarily used for files that are posted on the internet and viewed by web browsers. HTML files can also be sent via email.

Markup language: - A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. For example, a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type.

Web browser: -A Web browser is a software program that interprets the coding language of the World Wide Web in graphic form, displaying the translation rather than the coding. This allows anyone to “browse the Web” by simple point and click navigation, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages.

File extension: - A file extension is the suffix at the end of a filename that tells a computer, and the computer user, which program is needed to open the file. Also called a filename extension, this suffix preceded by at least one period, is generally one to five characters long but the norm is usually three characters in length.

Email: - Email, also sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of electronic mail, a protocol for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages. Email has gained popularity with the spread of the Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method of communication.

TCP/IP: - This often used but little understood set of operations stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the combination of the two and describes the set of protocols that allows hosts to connect to the Internet. In actuality, TCP/IP is a combination of ``more than those two protocols, but the TCP and IP parts of TCP/IP are the main ones and the only ones to become part of the acronymthat describes the operations involved.

TEXT FILE: - A text file is a computerfile that stores a typed document as a series of alphanumeric characters, usually without visual formatting information. The content may be a personal note or list, a journal or newspaper article, a book, or any other text that can be rendered accurately in typewritten form.

Hyper Link:-A hyperlink is a graphic or a piece of text in an Internet document that can connect readers to another webpage, or another portion of a document. Web users will usually find at least one hyperlink on every webpage. The simplest form of these is called embedded text or an embedded link.

WWW: - acronym for World Wide Web.

Get Complete Materials




Thursday, October 12, 2017

Design and implementation of web based project management system


Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION





1.1 Background of The Study
One of the recent advances in the world of information technology is the rapid development of communication which has turned the world into a global village, we can send mails electronically (e-mail), search for information (www), buy goods online (e-commerce), withdraw/ transfer money (e-banking), school online (e-learning); this has affected the society positively to a great extent, as a result, computerization of project management should not be exempted in this revolution.
Project Management (PM) is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of a specific project goals and objectives. A project is a finite endeavor having a specific start and completion date, undertaken to create a unique product or service which brings about beneficial change or added value. This finite characteristic of a project stand in sharp contrast to processes, or operations, which are permanent or semi-permanent functional works to repetitively produce the same product or service. In practice, the management of these two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate management philosophy, which is the subject of this study.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while adhering to classic project constraints usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary and more ambitious challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. A project is a carefully defined set of activities that use resources (money, people, materials, energy, space, provisions, communication, motivation, etc.) to achieve its goals and objectives.
Project management is quite often the province and responsibility of an individual project manager. This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that produce the end result, but rather strives to maintain the progress and productive mutual interaction of various parties in such a way that overall risk of failure is reduced. A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality, and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.
Regardless of the approach employed, careful consideration needs to be given to clarify surrounding project objectives, goals, and importantly, the roles and responsibilities of all participants and stakeholders. In software development, this approach is often known as "waterfall development", i.e., one series of tasks after another in linear sequence. In software development many organizations have adapted the Rational Unified Process (RUP) to fit this methodology, although RUP does not require or explicitly recommend this practice. Waterfall development can work for small tightly defined projects, but for larger projects of undefined or unknowable scope, it is less suited.
The Cone of Uncertainty explains some of this as the planning made on the initial phase of the project suffers from a high degree of uncertainty. This becomes specially true as software development is often the realization of a new or novel product, this method has been widely accepted as ineffective for software projects where requirements are largely unknowable up front and susceptible to change. While the names may differ from industry to industry, the actual stages typically follow common steps to problem solving "defining the problem, weighing options, choosing a path, implementation and evaluation."
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This research work was undertaken to uncover some of the problems with conventional project management systems. Where project team member meet on regularly basis to discuss the progress made on the project, team members are not permitted to travel or engage in activities outside the cities as work progress is review by physical presence. Using these conventional method pose lots of constraint on team member as no team member can focus on other business activities except these is completed. Thereby slowing the growth of the establishment.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
In view of the problems mentioned above, this project is aimed at implementing a web based project management system which will exclusively:
The objectives of this research study are as listed below;
1. Automate every project carried out in the establishment such as registering a project , keeping track of project milestones, projects updates and Asynchronous transfer of message between project team members.
2. Efficiently handling of project files and secure channel through which projects will be store, sorted, updated and retrieved.
3. To design a database for the system
4. To implement the system using MySQL and PHP
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is to move from manual documentation of projects to Computerized documentation of projects for easy retrieval, storage, accuracy and security. This research work will offer the following advantages to the various departments in the Abiolain Solutions Limited;
1. Reduced Storage: The cost of commercial property and the need to store documentation for e.g. retrieval, regulatory compliance means that paper based project storage competes with people for space within an organisation. Scanning projects and integrating them into a project management system can greatly reduce the amount of prime storage space required by paper.
2. Flexible Indexing: Indexing paper in more than one way can be done, but it is awkward, costly and time-consuming. Images of projects stored within a project management system can be indexed in several different ways simultaneously.
3. Improved, faster and more flexible search: Project Management Systems can retrieve files by any word or phrase in the document - known as full text search - a capability that is impossible with paper.
4. Improved Security: A project management system can provide better, more flexible control over sensitive projects. Many project management system solutions allow access to projects to be controlled at the folder and/or document level for different groups and individuals. Paper projects stored in a traditional filing cabinet or filing room does not have the same level of security i.e. if you have access to the cabinet you have access to all items in it.
5. Disaster Recovery: A project management system provides an easy way to back-up projects for offsite storage and disaster recovery providing failsafe archives and an effective disaster recovery strategy. Paper is a bulky and expensive way to back-up records and is vulnerable to fire, flood, vandalism and theft.
6. No Lost Files: Lost projects can be expensive and time-consuming to replace. Within a Project Management System, imaged projects remain centrally stored when being viewed, so none are lost or misplaced. New documents are less likely to be incorrectly filed and even if incorrectly stored can be quickly and easily found and moved via the full-text searching mechanisms.
7. Digital Archiving: Keeping archival versions of projects in a project management system helps protect paper documents that still have to be retained, from over-handling.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work is to develop a system capable of handling all Abiolian Solution Limited task such as creating project, setting time frame for a project, adding team members to each project, adding project milestones to each project and asynchronous messages between team members. The system will also incorporate in its design a feedback layout between project team an d client as well.
The system will not incorporate in its development all the functions of a project management system but will focus only on the aforementioned functionalities. The system will not be responsible for any loss of data if its environment (network/system installed on) is corrupt.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this research work, some constraints were encountered. Most prevailing among the constraints is the limited time for the conclusion of the study; other factors considered as challenging in the cause of this work include the following;
1. Reluctance by the officials to freely give out official information on how projects are being managed
2. Financial implication of the research work.
1.7Definition of Terms
Project: A project is a research or design which is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim under a specified time constraint.An ongoing project is usually called (or evolves into) a program.
Milestone: A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable. A milestone, by definition, has duration of zero and no effort.
Computerization: The act of introducing a computer system or of changing from a manual to a computer system.
Action Plan: A description of what needs to be done, when and by whom, to achieve the results called for by one or more objectives. It contains task assignments, schedules, and resource allocations.
Assumption: There may be external circumstances or events that must occur for the project to be successful (or that should happen to increase your chances of success). If you believe that the probability of the event occurring is acceptable, you could list it as an assumption. An assumption has a probability between 0 and 100%. That is, it is not impossible that the event will occur (0%) and it is not a fact (100%). It is somewhere in between. Assumptions are important because they set the context in which the entire remainder of the project is defined. If an assumption doesn't come through, the estimate and the rest of the project definition may no longer be valid.
Closure: The act of completing a project or a phase of a project, either because it has been completed or because it’s being terminated early.
Corrective Action: This is an action taken to eliminate the causes of an existing non-conformity or other undesirable situation. Changes made to bring expected future performance of a project.
Cost Management: The function required to maintain effective financial control of a project through the processes of evaluating, estimating, budgeting, monitoring, analyzing, forecasting, and reporting the cost.
Critical path: The sequence of activities that must be completed on schedule for an entire project to be completed on schedule. Each task on the critical path is called a critical task.
Data: A collection of facts made up of numbers, characters and symbols stored on computers in such a way that it can be processed by the computers.
Gantt chart: A Gantt chart is a bar chart that depicts activities as blocks over time. The beginning and end of the block correspond to the beginning and end-date of the activity. It is a project management tool.
Information: Important and useful facts obtained as output from a computer by means of process input data with a program.
Program:A Software designed for a certain use, such as word processing, electronic made, or spreadsheet entries. Sometimes it is called application.

Get Complete Materials




Saturday, October 7, 2017

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ART AND CRAFT EXHIBITION ON ANDROID PLATFORM


Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION





1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society was formed in London in 1887 to promote the exhibition of decorative arts alongside fine arts. Its exhibitions, held annually at the New Gallery from 1888–90, and roughly every three years thereafter, were important in the flowering of the British Arts and Crafts Movement in the decades prior to World War I.
The illustrator and designer Walter Crane served as the founding president of the Society for its first three years. Of its goals and purposes, he wrote:
We desired first of all to give opportunity to the designer and craftsman to exhibit their work to the public for its artistic interest and thus to assert the claims of decorative art and handicraft to attention equally with the painter of easel pictures, hitherto almost exclusively associated with the term art in the public mind.
Ignoring the artificial distinction between Fine and Decorative art, we felt that the real distinction was what we conceived to be between good and bad art, or false and true taste and methods in handicraft, considering it of little value to endeavour to classify art according to its commercial value or social importance, while everything depended upon the spirit as well as the skill and fidelity with which the conception was expressed, in whatever material, seeing that a worker earned the title of artist by the sympathy with and treatment of his material, by due recognition of its capacity, and its natural limitations, as well as of the relation of the work to use and life.
Annual exhibitions were held at the New Gallery in 1888, 1889, and 1890, but the third exhibition failed to match the quality of the first two, and was a financial disaster. William Morris succeeded Crane as president in 1891, and the Society thereafter chose to reduce the frequency of showings in order to ensure an abundance of materials to display.



1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


This research work was undertaken to uncover some of the problems with conventional way of managing art and craft store and warehouse. Where art and craft product are written on paper these document are only access by one person at a time and is prone to human errors. Using these conventional method pose lots of constraint on sales manager, warehouse manager, store manager as well as the overall manager of the establishment as each section has to compare records from time to time thereby slowing the growth of the establishment
In human endeavor, there is a lot of development which helps to maximize production, income and operation of businesses at different organisation. These have brought increase in complexity of marketing system like B2B (Business to Business) and B2C (Business to Consumers) and its operations.
Based on these, a number of problems are facing the Abiolian Solution Limited system which include
a) Inaccuracy of number of art and craft in store
b) Day-to-Day pressures of selling
c) Coping with customers
d) Solving basic business problems
e) Competitions (a new player enters, market conditions changes, sales drops, the company introduces a new products or services).
f) Most of the leads came from the sales staff.
g) Unable to recognize previously visited customers
h) Availability of market (sales and services) to the whole parts of Nigeria
i) Unstable fixed price


1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


In view of the problems mentioned above, this project is aimed at implementing a web based art and craft exhibition on android platform which will exclusively:
1. Automate every sales of all product in art and craft in stock
2. Manage different products and category in store
3. Manage different store own by the establishment
4. Manage every client and user details
5. Product daily and monthly report
6. Manage every users of the system


1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY


Buying and selling is very important to our everyday life, its very important that we humans have to market what we have like goods and services to other people that needs it, also purchase what we are lacking. Marketing is highly regarded everywhere in the whole parts of the world. The following are some significance of this study:
a. The secured site for electronic commerce will help the populace people of Nigeria to get rid of risk in carrying cash around and the convenience of shopping anytime of the day.
b. It will reduce the risk of transportation, since the customer does not have to travel far to shop for any items or goods.
c. It will reduce the risk of authentication of the product and improved business transaction as customers are now sure of the originality of the product they purchased.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


This project looks into the processes involved in marketing of goods and services in the marketplace. The researchers concentrated on the operation going on the general marketing activities like sales, management of stocks, pricing and registering of customers, security and policy guiding sales.

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY, Xamarin(Andriod) and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.

Get Complete Materials




DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CHOICE OF WHAT TO WEAR (Case study of any fashion design organization)


Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION





1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY


Fashion design is the art of application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, and has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklace. Because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, designers must at times anticipate changes to consumer tastes.
Designers conduct research on fashion trends and interpret them for their audience. Their specific designs are used by manufacturers. This is the essence of a designer’s role; however, there is variation within this that is determined by the buying and merchandising approach, and product quality; for example, budget retailers will use inexpensive fabrics to interpret trends, but high-end retailers will ensure that the best available fabrics are used.
Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. They consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn. They have a wide range and combinations of materials to work with and a wide range of colors, patterns and styles to choose from. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are usually sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses.
Some clothes are made specifically for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring. Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market, especially casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear.


1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Traditionally, individual or customers are used to ask friends / people what is best choice of cloth to put on to a particular location or occasion at the real. It needs the individual or customers to show up in the shops or looking for someone to ask in person, and walk around different shopping shelves or checking different type of cloth he or she has at is wardrobe. It takes labor, time and space to process these operations. An Online web application system provides a solution to reduce and optimize these stress and expenses. Authorized individual do not need to go to around looking for friend to ask what to where. They simply browse their Personal computers or cell phone’s to access web application, and evaluate the fashion and description, pictures on the screen to choose a particular fashion.


1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The aim of the study is to develop an online fashion brochure system to determine or predict a particular cloth to put on to occasion. The main objectives are:
1. To design an online fashion system
2. To create an avenue where artificial intelligence will give you hint on what to put on.
3. To create an avenue where people can look for fashion products online.
4. To develop a database to store information on fashion products and services.


1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY


With the aid of an efficient information system fashion associations can be able to react quickly by giving out information about changes in the market and latest trends to the public.
An online application not only saves time and money, but also minimizes administrative or individual efforts and cost. It provides an avenue to market products to a whole new audience. Here are benefits of having an online fashion brochure system on what to wear;
1. Easy advertisement of new products and services
2. Saves time on the part of individual to select the best type and fashion of clothing to put on at a particular time.
3. It creates an avenue for expansion to national and international markets
4. An online fashion brochure system improves the brand image of a particular company
5. It aids a fashion company in providing better customer service
6. It helps to simplify business processes and make them faster and more efficient.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


Every project is done to achieve a set of goals with some conditions keeping in mind that it should be easy to use, feasible and user friendly. As the goal of this project is to develop an online fashion brochure system on the choice of what to wear, this system will be designed keeping in mind the conditions (easy to use, feasibility and user friendly) stated above. The proposed project would cover:
1. Fashion Awareness
2. Creation of an avenue through which fashion products can be advertised
3. Adverts of new products

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.

Get Complete Materials




Design and Implementation of Mortuary management system


Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION





1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY


A morgue or mortuary (in a hospital or elsewhere) is used for the storage of human corpses awaiting identification or removal for autopsy or disposal by burial, cremation or other method. In modern times corpses have customarily been refrigerated to delay decomposition.
Mortuary early 14c., from Anglo-French mortuarie "gift to a parish priest from a deceased parishioner," from Medieval Latin mortuarium, noun use of neuter of Late Latin adjective mortuarius "pertaining to the dead," from Latin mortuus, pp. of mori "to die" (see mortal (adj.)). Meaning "place where bodies are kept temporarily" first recorded 1865, a euphemism for earlier English term "deadhouse."
Morgue from the French morgue, which means 'to look at solemnly, to defy'. First used to describe the inner wicket of a prison, where new prisoners were kept so that jailers and turnkeys could recognize them in the future, it took on its modern meaning in fifteenth-century Paris, being used to describe part of the Châtelet used for the storage and identification of unknown corpses.
Morgue is predominantly used in North American English, while mortuary is more common in British English, although both terms are used interchangeably. The euphemisms “Rose Cottage” and “Rainbow’s End” are sometimes used in British hospitals to enable discussion in front of patients, the latter mainly for children.
A person responsible for handling and washing bodies is now known as a diener, morgue attendant, or autopsy technician.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


The following problems were identified in the existing system at the case study:
1. Inability to keep the proper record of number human body in mortuary
2. Error in computation of available space in the mortuary
3. Inability to accurately calculate bill for mortuary service
4. Errors in computation of mortuary bills.
5. Difficulties in obtaining mortuary bills report.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of the study is to develop a mortuary management system. The following are the specific objectives to realize the needed aim:
1. To design web application that can keep the proper record of number human body in mortuary
2. To design web application that can give accurate computation of available space in the mortuary
3. To design a system that can be utilized to accurately bill for mortuary services.
4. To design a database system that can be used to store mortuary billing records.
5. To design a system that can be used to obtain mortuary bill reports.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY


The study is significant in the following ways:
1. It will provide the mortuary division of St. Gerards Catholic Hospital kaduna with an effective system to accurately compute and record mortuary bills.
2. It will aid easy management of mortuary billing information.
3. It will serve as a reference material for future research.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study will center on design and implementation of Mortuary management system for St. Gerards Catholic Hospital kaduna


1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.

Get Complete Materials




DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPUTER AIDED MEDICAL PROGNOSIS

Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION






1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY


Medical prognosis, (often simply termed prognosis) refers both to the process of attempting to determine or identifying a possible disease or disorder to the opinion reached by this process. A diagnosis in the sense of diagnostic procedure can be regarded as an attempt at classifying an individual’s health condition into separate and distinct categories that allow medical decisions about treatment and prognosis to be made. Subsequently, a diagnostic opinion is often described in terms of a disease or other conditions.

In the medical diagnostic system procedures, elucidation of the etiology of the disease or conditions of interest, that is, what caused the disease or condition and its origin is not entirely necessary. Such elucidation can be useful to optimize treatment, further specify the prognosis or prevent recurrence of the disease or condition in the future.

Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are interactive computer programs designed to assist healthcare professionals such as physicians, physical therapists, optometrists, healthcare scientists, dentists, pediatrists, nurse practitioners or physical assistants with decision making skills. The clinician interacts with the software utilizing both the clinician’s knowledge and the software to make a better analysis of the patient’s data than neither humans nor software could make on their own.

Typically, the system makes suggestions for the clinician to look through and the he picks useful information and removes erroneous suggestions.

To diagnose a disease, a physician is usually based on the clinical history and physical examination of the patient, visual inspection of medical images, as well

as the results of laboratory tests. In some cases, confirmation of the diagnosis is particularly difficult because it requires specialization and experience, or even the application of interventional methodologies (e.g., biopsy). Interpretation of medical images (e.g., Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, etc.) usually performed by radiologists, is often limited due to the non-systematic search patterns of humans, the presence of structure noise (camouflaging normal anatomical background) in the image, and the presentation of complex disease states requiring the integration of vast amounts of image data and clinical information. Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD), defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who uses the output from a computerized analysis of medical data as a ―second opinion‖ in detecting lesions, assessing disease severity, and making diagnostic decisions, is expected to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of physicians and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. With CAD, the final diagnosis is made by the physician.


The first CAD systems were developed in the early 1950s and were based on production rules (Shortliffe, 1976) and decision frames (Engelmore & Morgan, 1988). More complex systems were later developed, including blackboard systems (Engelmore & Morgan, 1988) to extract a decision, Bayes models (Spiegelhalter, Myles, Jones, & Abrams, 1999) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) (Haykin, 1999). Recently, a number of CAD systems have been implemented to address a number of diagnostic problems. CAD systems are usually based on biosignals, including the electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and so on or medical images from a number of modalities, including radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and so on.


In therapy, the selection of the optimal therapeutic scheme for a specific patient is a complex procedure that requires sound judgement based on clinical

expertise, and knowledge of patient values and preferences, in addition to evidence from research. Usually, the procedure for the selection of the therapeutic scheme is enhanced by the use of simple statistical tools applied to empirical data. In general, decision making about therapy is typically based on recent and older information about the patient and the disease, whereas information or prediction about the potential evolution of the specific patient disease or response to therapy is not available. Recent advances in hardware and software allow the development of modern Therapeutic Decision Support (TDS) systems, which make use of advanced simulation techniques and available patient data to optimize and individualize patient treatment, including diet, drug treatment, or radiotherapy treatment.
In addition to this, CDS systems may be used to generate warning messages in unsafe situations, provide information about abnormal values of laboratory tests, present complex research results, and predict morbidity and mortality based on epidemiological data.



1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Disease prognosis and treatment constitute the major work of physicians. Some of the time, prognosis is wrongly done leading to error in drug prescription and further complications in the patient’s health. It has also been noticed that much time is spent in physical examination and interview of patients before treatment commences. The clinical decision support system (CDSS) shall address these problems by effectively providing quality diagnosis in real-time.



1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


To develop modern interactive prognostic software that will aid clinicians in diagnostic procedures.

To offer prescription of medication.

To enable flexibility in access to information through the World Wide Web or comprehensive knowledge bases.
To offer information on effective disease prevention.

To provide for real-time overall effective, efficient and accurate service delivery by clinicians in line with global medical health standards.




1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY


Advances in the areas of computer science and artificial intelligence have allowed for development of computer systems that support clinical diagnostic or therapeutic decisions based on individualized patient data. Clinical decision support (CDS) systems aim to codify and strategically manage biomedical knowledge to handle challenges in clinical practice using mathematical modeling tools, medical data processing techniques and artificial intelligence (A.I.) methods.

Its significance is also seen in its ability to:


Provide diagnostic support and model the possibility of occurrence of various diseases or the efficiency of alternative therapeutic schemes.
Reduce the potential for harmful drug interactions, prescription errors and adverse drug reactions.
Enable clinicians report adverse drug reactions to the relevant authorities.

Promote better patient care by enhancing collaboration between physicians and pharmacists.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


Due to the fact that it is difficult to develop an expert system for diagnosing all diseases at a time, financial and time constraints, this research is limited to medical diagnosis and treatment for malaria, typhoid fever and pneumonia.
The therapy covers severe and uncomplicated cases of the treatment of extreme or severe associated cases in patients such as cerebral malaria which causes insanity, blondness, asthma, tuberculosis and so on.
The study will also involve method(s) of diagnosis especially the patient history, physical examination and request for clinical laboratory test but will not go into how these tests are carried out.
Rather, it will only make use of the laboratory and treatment.




1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.

Get Complete Materials




Friday, October 6, 2017

An empirical analysis of the efficacy of fiscal and monetary policy in Nigeria growth

Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION





1.1 Background of the Study
The use of economic policy as tool for economic stabilization by governments of different economies of the world cannot be overemphasized. Some of these policy measures may have economic-wide effect (e.g. the budget and inflation) while others may have specific effects such as the consumption tax on consumer good (Killick, 1981 and Black, Calitz, Steenekamp, Ajam, 2000). Policymakers around the world employ various policies, singly or mix, to stabilize the boom-bust cyclical swings of economic activities. In macroeconomic management, the two most commonly employed policies are the fiscal and monetary policies.
The Monetary policy, managed by the Central Bank, is conducted through changes in the money supply and interest rate. While the Fiscal policy, which is managed by the government of that economy, is conducted through changes in government spending and taxes (Liborio, 2011; Hussain, Wijeweera and Hoang, 2012). Despite the fact that monetary and fiscal policies are implemented by two different bodies, these policies are far from independent. In fact, a change in one may influence the effectiveness of the other and thereby the overall impacts of any policy change. Since 1980s, there has been a general consensus among economists in favour of monetary policy as a more effective stabilization tool relative to fiscal policy (Mishkin, 2004; Mankiw, 2005; and Bullard, 2012), however, the recent global financial crisis of 2007 has renewed much interest on fiscal stimulus.
In recent times, policy makers are prompted to employ unconventional actions to stabilize the national economy. Precisely, while monetary policymakers turn to quantitative easing (the purchase of financial assets so as to lower long-term interest rates, thereby increasing the money supply), fiscal policymakers increase government spending and reduce taxes so as to boost employment and output (Liborio, 2011). The global economic meltdown, which persisted until 2009, had significant adverse effects on the real economic activities of many developing countries. For instance the Nigerian real GDP growth rate decline from 7.6 per cent in 2006 to 6.0 per cent at the onset of the crises in 2008. The effect of the global crisis was pervasive and its adverse effect remained noticeable in the areas of agriculture, industry and the wholesale sub-sectors in Nigeria (CBN, 2009). Similar trends were also observed in other countries of the world. To ensure that their economies are insulated or protected from the possible negative effects of such snowballing, many countries especially developing countries had resulted to the use of domestic macroeconomic policy to re-engineer their economy and provide some policy palliative that can assist in stabilizing their economies.
Nigeria in particular had, in response to the global economic crisis, introduced both monetary and fiscal stimuli as proactive measures to prevent the economy from nose-diving into further economic depression. The policy measures adopted by government were mainly on three broad fronts namely: monetary policy, fiscal policy and trade policy. In Nigeria, fiscal and monetary policies (especially the tools of government expenditure, money supply and monetary policy rate (MPR)) have been extensively used by the government and other policy makers to stimulate output. In order to appreciate the policy-source of these variations in output performance over the years, it is necessary to take a retrospective look at the conduct of fiscal and monetary policy in Nigeria.



1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, fiscal and monetary policies have been choicely employed by policy makers in Nigeria to influence and stabilize the behavior of the aggregate economy, with more focus on the tools of government expenditure, broad money and monetary policy rate (MPR) as the operating instruments. However, neither of these policies individually, could be unanimously said to have effectively stimulated economic performance consistently over time. For instance, evidence from CBN (2012) shows that, for the period 1974-75 (early days of monetary targeting), government expenditure increased by 117%, money supply rose by 80%, interest rate fell by 50 basis points but, surprisingly, output dipped by 5.2% in the same period. Whereas, in 1993-94 period (early days of partial monetary instrument autonomy), government spending fell by 16% while broad money rose by 34.5%, interest rate fell by 12500 basis points and output rose by a paltry rate of 0.1% for that period. Meanwhile in 2004-05 fiscal year (under the medium-term fiscal framework), government expenditure climbed 28% while broad money grew by 24%, interestingly, interest rate dipped 200 basis points and output increased by 5.4%. Surprisingly in 2010-11 fiscal period (under the new monetary policy framework), when government expenditure grew insignificantly by 2.5% but with significant growth in broad money by 15.4%, interest rate rose by more than 300 basis but still, output increased by 6.7% in the same period.
However, it is pretty difficult for policy makers to ascertain which of the fiscal and monetary actions is actually responsible for driving the economy at a specific point in time, and how the interaction between them have enhanced or inhibited output performance in Nigeria. In an attempt to unravel the uncertainty around fiscal and monetary policy effectiveness and interactions, various studies have been conducted, with different approaches. In fact, country-specific evidences on Nigeria have shown diverse results with two main strands; some in favour of monetary policy effectiveness (e.g. Ajayi, 1974; Asogu, 1998; Adefeso and Mobolaji, 2010; Okpara and Nwaoha, 2010; Iyeli, Enang and Emmanuel, 2012) while a few of them favours fiscal policy effectiveness (Aigbokhan, 1985; Egwaikhide, Enoma and Saheed, 2012).
The pro-monetary effectiveness studies argue that the effectiveness of the government fiscal policy in a country like Nigeria is very doubtful. Their argument is premised on the fact that: first, for many years, government has been practicing budget of incremental which has had little correlations with obtained economic performance. Even with the implementation of the Medium-Term Fiscal Framework (MTFF) since 2010, budget performance still remains abysmal. Secondly, the Nigerian economy comprises of a very huge informal sector which is largely untaxed and unaffected by the various tax reforms of the government over the years, thereby making the reforms less effective (Ogbuabor, 2013). More so, the rising trend of government spending over the years seems to have little correlation with growth. Evidence from research has shown that, many a times, large chunk of government expenditure for a proposed project is lost to corruption and individual’s subjective utility maximization of the bureaucrats while a little proportion of it actually trickles down for grassroots development, thereby making government spending to have a very weak link, or at best erratic effect, on output performance which is contrary to some theoretical postulations (Ajisafe and Folorunso, 2002; Abata, Kehinde and Bolarinwa, 2012).
In a similar way, the pro-fiscal effectiveness studies argue that, in a developing country like Nigeria, where the financial system is at best rudimentary while government plays a significant role in major sectors of the economy, monetary policy conduct is most likely difficult with very few chances of influencing the aggregate economy significantly. They premised their argument on the fact that: first, due to the weak structure of the economy’s financial system, the CBN policy rate (MRR/MPR) which is the primary signal of the money market seems to be weak in channeling financial resources from surplus spending units to deficit spending units. This implies that interest rate may not be the stimulating/deciding factor in saving and investment decisions in the Nigerian economy (CBN, 2010). Corollary to this is the weak link between interest rates and aggregate output performance of the economy. For instance there were some periods where the policy rate (MRR/MPR) was constant (e.g. 1970-74, 1984-86, 1994-97, 2012-13Q1), however, the economy posted significant growth differentials for same periods, which is contrary to economic theory (CBN, 2012).
Furthermore, recent evidence reveals that, due to the structural imbalance in the real (productive) sector of the Nigerian economy, growth in money aggregates translates into inflation rather than output/productivity growth, thereby leaving monetary policy conduct with much questions than results (Egwaikhide, Enoma and Saheed, 2012). Despite the plausibility of various arguments portrayed by these strands of studies on Nigeria, most of them did not consider any form of interaction between fiscal and monetary policy, and a need for policy-mix in their analysis of policy management, which might have affected their outcomes. Whereas, recent evidences on macroeconomic policy management have shown that for effective performance of both fiscal and monetary policy, individual policy transmission is not sufficient, rather, there is a need for policy-mix or interaction as well as a mutual coordination between fiscal and monetary authorities (Leith and Thadden, 2006; Raj, Khundrakpam and Das, 2011). And it is expected that the nature of this interaction, complementarily or confliction, between these policies may have severe consequences on their ability to effectively stabilize the economy or dampen business cycles (Okafor, 2013).
In the light of the above analysis, one may wonder how fiscal and monetary policies interact with each other in Nigeria; the nature of interaction between them – whether these policies conflict (substitute) rather than complement each other or whether any of the policies dominates the other in the process of transmission; how these policies have influenced economic performance, both singly and interactively; why these policies have continually missed their economic targets and how they can be used to mitigate external shocks in a different exchange regime despite the special attention given to them and the cost of running them; and what institutional framework need to be put in place in order to harness the potency of these policies, singly and interactively. It is therefore necessary to investigate the level to which this interaction can transmit in to an effective output performance (effective demand management policy) and guide against external shocks. Guided by the Killick’s (1981) criteria for assessing policy efficiency, this study therefore, seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the nature of interaction between fiscal and monetary policy in Nigeria over time?
2. How does fiscal and monetary actions transmit to output response in Nigeria?
3. Can this policy mix mitigate the degree of openness in Nigeria?



1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to analyze the role of policy interaction in the assessment of the relative effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy on output response in Nigeria growth. The Specific objectives are to examine the:
1. nature of interaction between fiscal and monetary policy in Nigeria over time
2. transmission mechanism of fiscal and monetary policy on output
3. analyze the impact of policy mix on the degree of openness in Nigeria
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In line with the specific objectives of this study, this research shall be guided by the following hypotheses:
Ho1: There is no interaction between fiscal and monetary policy mix in Nigeria.
Ho2: Fiscal and monetary policy mix does not transmit to output response.
Ho3: the degree of openness does not have impact on the Nigerian economy
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study belongs to the area of Macroeconomic Public Policy (MPP) which deals with policy simulation, evaluation and analysis within a macroeconomic framework. By analyzing the interaction between various fiscal and monetary instruments, this study shall improve the understanding of the policymakers on the nature, extent and effect of policy interaction on macroeconomics targets, like output, in Nigeria. And the examination of the nature of policy interaction under different policy regimes in the country shall guide the fiscal policymakers and monetary authority on the optimal policy-mix for a specific target under a similar scenario of a particular policy regime in the future. This study shall guide policy makers of the policy mix that can mitigate the impact of external shock on domestic economy. Also, the outcome of this study shall help the government and the monetary authority to discover some areas of weakness in the choice and usage of specific policy instruments and how to improve on them for effective stabilization. Moreover, the study shall help both fiscal and monetary policymakers to design better policies, as well as make good economic forecasts based on the chosen policy instruments.
Furthermore, the study shall add to the existing literature on the interaction of fiscal and monetary policy, especially for developing counties, like Nigeria, where the government has been playing a prominent role while the financial system is at best rudimentary. Finally, the study shall lend a voice to the ongoing advocacy for a cordial and mutual relationship between the fiscal (government) and monetary (CBN) authorities, especially in the area of policy management and macroeconomic stabilization.
1.6 SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research is a country-specific study concentrating on the Nigerian economy. For relevance and in-depth analysis, the study span through the period 1960-2014, the study considered annual data instead of quarterly data, as is common in much of the literature. The main advantage of using annual data is that the economic interpretation of external shocks identified with quarterly data may be more problematic, as (substantial) economic reversions do not usually take place at that high frequency. Although there are many instruments of fiscal and monetary policy that have been employed in empirical research, for the purpose of this study, fiscal balance and interest rate shall be employed as proxies for the respective policies, while output performance shall be captured with GDP gap.
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This empirical study is divided into five chapters and, each of which is further sub-divided. The first chapter is introduction. These include: the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, hypothesis of the study, significance of the study, scope and delimitations of the study and organization of the study.
In the second chapter, relevant theoretical and empirical literatures are reviewed.
Chapter three is the methodology. The researcher’s model is stated. The sources of the data and their description, the estimation procedure are all stated. Chapter four shows the presentation, analysis and interpretation of results. The fifth chapter is the concluding part of the work, under which the researcher states the summary of findings, policy recommendation and conclusion.
1.8 Definition of Term
Economic policy: Economic policy refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field. It covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labor market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
Fiscal Policy: In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy. According to Keynesian economics, when the government changes the levels of taxation and government spending, it influences aggregate demand and the level of economic activity. Fiscal policy is often used to stabilize the economy over the course of the business cycle.
Monetary Policy: Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, like the central bank or currency board, controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Economic Diversification: Economic diversification can mean different things depending on the context. The predominant way of thinking about it is what is known as economic complexity, which is the idea that countries should not be dependent upon a small number of products for their economic livelihoods.

Get Complete Materials




Wednesday, October 4, 2017

AN EXAMINATION OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR NIGERIA

Price: 6000 Naira

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION






The WTO and its predecessor GATT have formed rules and discipline for ensuring
multilateral trade among nations. Its overriding objective is to ensure that trade flows
smoothly, freely, fairly and predictably. At the heart of the system are the WTO’s
Agreements which are the legal rules for international commerce. This appears to be the
greatest supranational, international economic institutional structure established to
promote international trade and globalization. However, these global trade rules
formulated by the WTO are fraught with many inadequacies and hence pose serious
challenges to developing member countries such as Nigeria. The immediate objective of
this research was examine the propriety of developing countries like Nigeria signing
these international trade agreements hoping that by doing so, they will reap huge
economic benefits. However, the benefits and costs of trade liberalization (the driving
force of globalization championed by the WTO) for developing countries constitutes an
increasingly controversial issue. Thus, the central question for this dissertation is
whether strict adherence to the obligations and commitments made by Nigeria to WTO’s
GATs and TRIPs will not pose serious challenges to Nigeria’s economic development
objectives as a third world country. And if it does, how can these challenges be
addressed. Despite the inherent unbalanced nature (as it seems to favour only developed
countries) of the terms of these international trade agreements, governments especially in
developing countries are still vulnerably and helplessly opening up their local economies
to the global markets with all the attendant dislocation in economic growth projection.
Therefore, the main objective of this research was examine the WTO’s General
Agreement on trade in services (GATs) and Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of
Intellectual Property (TRIPs) with a view to identifying the issues and challenges
underlying the application of these trade agreements and make recommendations as
appropriate. Finally, this study increases our understanding of the need to have sound
national development policies and laws that must be properly implemented and pursued
consistently and well coordinated in Nigeria to achieve economic growth. Added to this is
a clarion call for a drastic reform of the WTO to address the marginalization of
developing countries.

Get Complete Materials




AN EXAMINATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CHALLENGES INHIBITING THE DISTRIBUTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS UNDER THE PETROLEUM PROFIT TAX LAWS OF NIGERIA

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT







The aim of this paper is to examine the ownership, the legal framework as well as the basic
components of the petroleum profits which components are revenue, adjusted profits,
assessable profit, chargeable profit, assessable tax and chargeable tax.In Nigeria, the
petroleum industry is the bedrock of the economy and is responsible for about 90 percent of
her total revenue. Her other sources of revenue include, inter alia, agriculture, solid
minerals, goods and services and most importantly taxes collected from various sources
including the petroleum industry. Companies and corporations in Nigeria are taxed
principally under the Companies Income Tax Act. Cap 60, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria,
1990.. While companies engaged in petroleum operations are taxed specially under the
Petroleum Profit Tax Act, as amended (PPTA Cap.354, LFN, 1990). Because of the peculiar
and complicated nature of the oil industry, the Federal Board of Inland Revenue (FBIR) is
saddled with the onerous task of collecting taxes from the various companies including those
engaged in the oil business.This project will examine the petroleum profit taxation system
established under the PPTA, with a view to assessing whether or not it is effective in dealing
with the myriad of problems associated with the financial areas of the oil industry
particularly the problem of tax evasion on the part of some companies and deliberate
fraudulent and incorrect assessment of the tax due and payable on petroleum profits by
others.This paper also focuses on the assessment of the petroleum profit tax under the
Petroleum Profit Tax Act. Cap P13, Laws of Federation of Nigeria 2004, as well as judicial
authorities‟ regarding same. Nigeria‟s economy is totally dependent on oil.It is no doubt that
proceeds from the sale of crude oil holds the mainstay of the Nigerian economy since
1970s.equally not in contention is the fact that oil explorations and exploitation requires
enormous amount of money and technological know-how to execute.This paper also
concludes that petroleum profit tax is one of the most important components direct taxes in
Nigeria that affects the economic growth, therefore should be properly managed to reduce
the level of evasion by petroleum exploration companies in Nigeria. The paper recommends
among others that companies involved in petroleum operations should be properly
supervised by the relevant tax authority (FIRS) to reduce the level of tax evasion, government
should show more accountability in the management of tax revenue and finally, the level of
corruption in Nigeria and that of government officials should be drastically reduced to win
the confidence of tax payers for voluntary tax compliance. More so, government policy
should create a conducive-business environment that will attract foreign investors to the
country.

Get Complete Materials




AN APPRAISAL OF ALIENATION OF RIGHT OF OCCUPANCY UNDER THE NIGERIAN LAW ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

Price: 4000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION







1.1 Introduction
The results of population pressure, urbanization and socio-economic growth have great social and economic impact on land issues in Nigeria. This therefore makes people to move from rural to urban areas and therefore, congested urban areas are in need for expansion but land is too scarce. Hence, to acquire land became even impossible because of the cost of compensation. These difficulties faced by both the people and governments make it necessary for the government to do something about land distribution in Nigeria. Consequently, the Rent Control Panel was appointed in 1976 and saddled with the responsibility to study the system of land distribution and speculation. They therefore recommended among other things, that the federal military government should take over all land in the country. This and many panels and committees necessitated the enactment of the Land Use Act which provides the framework of national policy in Nigeria and enables the government to control the use of which the land can be put in all parts of the country. To make the above policy of nationalizing land effective, the land use Act provides for “right of Occupancy” which gives the holder a mere right of possession and not ownership. Hence, two types of occupancies are provided for namely: Statutory Right of Occupancy (SRO) and Customary Rights of Occupancy (CRO). However, the Act stipulates that those rights granted to holders can only be alienated when governor‟s consent is first had and obtained. And failure to secure that consent may render any transaction or alienation null and void.
Therefore the above provisions of the land use Act make land transactions very
difficult, thereby making grants very complicated. These problems can among others be attributed to inadequacy of the law regulating land transaction (Land Use Act), on one hand and the conflict of interpretation of the requirement of Governor‟s consent on the other. Thus, the research aims at appraising and analyzing alienation of right of occupancy, consent requirements and the problems it created. It also looks at the issues and challenges of the area and proffers some solutions.
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Research
The aim of this research is to appraise alienation of the right of occupancy under the Nigerian law. The objectives of the research are:
a. To analyze Governor‟s consent under the Land Use Act,
b. To examine problems and controversies created by the consent requirement as
well as the hardship meted out by the interpretation of sections 21 and 22 of the
Land Use Act.
c. To also bring out some issues and challenges and finally offers some solutions to
the problems associated with the area of the research.
1.3 Scope of the Research
This research work is restricted to Alienation of Right of Occupancy in Nigeria. Hence, more emphasis is placed on right of occupancy, alienation of right of occupancy and the requirement of governor‟s consent as provided under Sections 21 and 22 of the Land Use Act. More so, the work touches some aspects of alienation under customary law, other laws and some other legislation As such, local cases on alienation of land in Nigeria, some of the provisions of the Land Use Act and other legislations on alienation of land are referred to.
1.4 Statement of the Problem
One of the problems the research discovers is that of consent requirement, to which the Act stipulates that it must be first had and obtained from the governor of a state. This is because even though there have been interesting developments from the courts since the ruling in Savannah Bank Ltd. v. Ajilo concerning governor‟s consent, yet some decisions appear to be directly opposite of Ajilo‟s case. This creates problems of conflict of interpretation of the provisions of governor‟s consent as well as controversial decisions by the courts. This is because, the Supreme Court has recently gone back to its earlier decision in Ajilo and held that any alienation without the consent Government of the Governor or Local Government as the case may be is null and void Thus, in Nigeria Industrial Development Bank Ltd v. Olalomi Industrial Ltd . There
was a mortgaged transaction without Governor‟s consent and the mortgagor wanted to invalidate the transaction on ground of lack of governor‟s consent. The court in refusing the mortgagor‟s application held inter alia that “… It is my view that it will be in the interest of justice to do so rather than allow the mortgagor to eat his cake and still have it back, the court shall resist at all cost the attempt at using it as an engine of fraud or cheating or dishonesty‟‟.
Again, in Alh. Ayotunde Seriki v. Sefi’u Olukorede . It was held that one cannot have a right of action when he or she comes to a court of justice in an unclean manner. It goes to say that equity will not allow a person to benefit or profit from his own crime, fraud, immorality or illegality as in the case of failure to obtain the Governor‟s consent to alienate his or her right .
However, the decision in Awojugbagbe Light Industry v. Chinukwe represents a
means to moderate the excesses of the wisdom in Ajilo. One of the main issues in that case was whether the land use Act forbids some forms of agreement to alienate. The Supreme Court held that the holder of a statutory right of occupancy is certainly not prohibited by S. 22(1) of the Land Use Act 1978 with a written agreement in form of negotiation which may end with a written agreement for presentation to the government for his consent or approval. This is because, the Act does not prohibit a written agreement evidencing an intention to transfer or alienate land. Thus, to hold that a contravention or non-compliance of S. 22 of the Act occurs at a time when the holder of Statutory Right executes or seals a deed of mortgage is tantamount to defeating the spirit and intendment of S. 22 of the Act.
Another decision that creates controversy is Okuneye v. F.B.N. Plc where the bone of contention was whether governor‟s consent is necessary for equitable mortgage. The court held that a mere deposit of title deeds of property to secure a loan is not an alienation of the holder‟s statutory right of occupancy by the definition under S. 22 of the Act, and therefore, governor‟s consent is not required. This decision appears to have been reached per incurriam as no reference was made to S. 51 of the Act where mortgage is comprehensively defined to include a second and subsequent mortgage and equitable mortgage as well. So the Act unequivocally stipulates that any alienation made without governor‟s consent is null and void notwithstanding the fact that the alienation is by assignment, mortgage, transfer of possession, sublease or otherwise.
Finally, in Chief Belonwo Ugochukwu v. Cooperative and Commerce Bank Nigeria Ltd . The Supreme Court frowned at conducts similar to that in Ajilo‟s case where it held that a mortgagor who was to seek and obtain consent shall not be allowed to turn round and assert that the mortgaged deed was null and void for lack of governor‟s consent and that he shall not be allowed to benefit from his own wrong.
Surprisingly, in recent case of Union Bank of (Nig.) Plc & Anor v. Ayodire & Sons (Nig) Ltd , the Supreme Court went back to its earlier decision in Ajilo and held that a mortgagor can still turn round to benefit from his wrongful conduct. This unfortunate development put the Court of Appeal in a dilemma as to which of the Supreme Court‟s decision to apply in the case of Pharmatic Industrial Project Ltd v. Trade Bank (Nig) Plc 84 others that came before the Court of Appeal barely two years after the Supreme Court‟s decision in Union Bank v. Ayodire
Another problem of this research is that of non-compliance. This is because the
cumbersome nature of consent requirement makes many people to alienate land without governor‟s consent. Thus, the aims and objectives of the Land Use Act (which vests all lands on the governor and gives him power to give consent for any alienation) have been defeated.
The above, among other problems leads to the questions as to whether the theory and practice of governor‟s consent has helped to realize the objective of the Act and as to whether the land is available to those who are willing, ready and able to use it. Hence, the research centres on analysis of those problems and proffers some solutions to same.
1.5 Justification of the Research
This research is necessitated as a result of the problems of alienation of land in Nigeria.
Thus, it would be of great assistance to legal practitioners, most especially those
specialized in property and conveyancing law, law lecturers, judges and justices of
various courts of record, law students, banks and their customers who participate in
mortgage transactions and any other person who has interest in land transactions.
Consequently, people that engage in land transactions would be enlightened and finally comply with the requirement of the law.
1.6 Literature Review
The area of this research is statutory oriented and it came into effect when the Land Use Act came into operation. Therefore, most of the literatures about this area can only be traced from 1978 to date. One of the authors that contributed much on this area is Omotolar J. A. . He highlighted the necessity that facilitated the enactment of the Land Use Act, the impact of Sections. 22 and 26 of the Act i.e. issues of governor‟s consent and effect of non-compliance with the requirement of consent. Yet he does not take necessary steps to stipulate the impact of the interpretative misconceptions of the Act by the courts. This is what this research sets out to achieve James, in his book critically analyzed consent requirement. He discussed problems of sale or assignment and mortgage transactions, particularly the hardships that both the mortgagors and mortgagees face. However, he made little attempt to discuss the emerging issues with consent requirement. This is a gap that this research fills.
Taiwo, is another recent author that contributed hugely on the aspect of alienation of land in Nigeria. He succeeded in analyzing issues of Right of Occupancy, impact of Right of Occupancy and requirement for governor‟s consent. He also made effort to highlight many recent cases on the area. However, no attempt was made by the author to analyze the inadequacies of the Act, more particularly Sections 22 and 26.
Yakubu M.G. viewed that any transfer of Right of Occupancy by assignment, lease, sale, mortgage, sublease, bequest or otherwise made without the consent of the governor first had and obtained is invalid. However, this assertion was probably made prior to the Supreme Court decision in the case of Okuneye v. F.B.N Plc. Hence, the author did not talk about the problems of interpretation of the provisions dealing with alienation of right of occupancy .
Again, Olong A.D.M maintained that consent requirement to alienation of land in
Nigeria has its philosophical basis in the concept of ownership. Hence, its potentials are so great that in recent times it has become the focus of government policy. He again opined that since alienation is one of the incidents of ownerships, one can therefore alienate his interest in land without consent of anybody. But with the advent of the Land Use Act, title to land became vested in the Governor who serves as a trustee to all Nigerians. However, the author did not take time to dwell on the subject matter let alone hammer on the conflicting decisions of the courts in trying to interpret Sections 21 and 22 of the Land Use Act respectively.
Another good literature about this area is that of Taiwo L. who analyzes some of the problems associated with the practical implications of section 22 of the land use Act, however he made little or less contribution about the current problems with the sections.
Madaki, Succeeded in highlighting some of the cumbersome nature of the governor‟s consent. Yet, he did not take time to dwell on the emerging issues related therein. That is issues of recent Supreme Court‟s conflicting decision that creates problems to lower courts Aboki, makes some criticisms about the requirement of governor‟s consent on alienation of Right of Occupancy. However, he placed much emphasis on the decision in Savannah Bank Ltd. v. Ajilo.
Taiwo, in his article took time to discuss problems with consent requirement for
alienation of right of occupancy and how the courts interpreted the phrase „consent first had and obtained‟. However, he has not contributed on the conflicts of interpretation of the consent requirement by our courts. And this lacuna is what this research has set out to achieve.
Another literature on this research is that of Owolabi, who did an expository analysis on alienation of land in Nigeria. However, he emphases more on the general provisions of the Land Use Act and the methods of alienation prior to the commencement of the Act.
Taiwo, E.A. in his article titled; „‟The Effects of Failure to Obtain Consent to Alienate Rights under the Land Use Act and the Emerging Equities‟‟ brought out and analyzed the hardships suffered by the mortgagees. But he has not emphasized on conflicting decisions of the court which we submit are the causes of any hardships that people might suffer in land transactions.
Olawoye, discussed the right of a holder to alienate his right of occupancy and opined that such right is hinged on governor‟s consent. Though, he explained right of occupancy, alienation and governor‟s consent, he however did not discuss the major problems with consent. And these problems and controversies are what this research aims at achieving.
Omotola examined the provisions of sections 21 and 22 that deal with the requirement of governor‟s consent on alienation of right of occupancy. He recommended that governors should adopt the provisions in section 22 (2) in all cases dealing with transfer of interest arising before the Act and permit the citizens to follow the old practice relating to their transfer while giving prompt consent where required in an automatic manner. He however did not discuss the conflict of interpretation of the provision of section 22 generally.
Babaji, made enormous contributions about this area of research. He highlighted the problems created by the entire Land Use Act, namely it leads to underdevelopment of the economy, and the issue of the “Half Hectare Rule” etc. Unfortunately, he made no attempt to analyze the problems created by S. 22, more particularly the issue of conflicting interpretation of the provisions of sections 21 and 22 of the Act.
The courts too have over the years demonstrated some level of judicial activism on this area. Hence, there are various judicial pronouncements on the concept of alienation of land in Nigeria, when to alienate, how to (the requirement of governor‟s consent), etc.
Thus, in the locus classicus case of Savannah Bank Ltd. v. Ajilo the scope of the
provision of S. 22 of the land use Act (which is one of the most central issues of this research) came up for determination. In that case, Chief F. R. A. Williams (SAN) contended that the provisions of S. 22 of the Act implies that, any alienation made without governor‟s consent was unlawful and consequently any transaction conducted therein was illegal going by the provision of S. 26 of the same Act. The court held that the alienation was unlawfully made and the mortgage transaction was illegal, notwithstanding the fault of the grantor (Ajilo) to secure governor‟s consent.
However, in Oil Feld Supply Centre Ltd. V. Joseph Lloyd Johnson. The same
supreme court held that certain equities will not permit the company to benefit from their own illegality”. This goes with the equitable maxim that says “he who comes to equity must come with clean hands”
Again, in Okunneye v. F. B. N. Plc the court held that governor‟s consent is not
required while creating an equitable mortgage. This decision also contradicts the provision of section 51 of the Land Use Act which defines mortgage to include
equitable mortgage.
Recently, the Supreme Court in Union Bank of (Nig.) Plc & Anor v. Ayodire & Sons (Nig) Ltd went back to its previous decision in Ajilo, notwithstanding the distinction of the facts of the two cases and the effects of the decision on mortgagees who suffer for the wrongs they have not committed.
Therefore, the above cases even though they highlighted the significant contributions of the courts in the area of this research, yet, they ended up in confusing the practical application of governor‟s consent. For, some of the cases were decided in the opposite by one court.
As such, the advertised motive of curbing land speculation and removal of the
bottlenecks in land acquisition and tenure has been watered down by the event of
difficulties brought about by the consent provision of Land Use Act. Thus, the writer embarks on this research to identify the causes and effects of these difficulties and itemize some recommendations that will help in solving the problems associated with alienation of land in Nigeria.
1.7 Methodology
The methodology adopted in this research is doctrinal i.e. library oriented research that comprises:
a. Primary authorities which includes Act of the National Assembly, Laws of the states and case laws.
b. Secondary authorities, which comprises relevant information from leading
authorities, textbooks on the subject matter of the research, journal articles,
opinions of specialists and practitioners on aspect of law relating thereto.

1.8 Organizational Layout
Chapter one of this research deals with the General Introduction of the subject matter. It also highlights the Objectives of the research, Scope of the research, Statement of the Problem of the research, Justification of the research and Organizational Layout.
Chapter two is Analysis of the Nature and Scope of Right of Occupancy. It starts with an Introduction, Types of Right of Occupancy, Acquisition of Rights of Occupancy, Contents of Right of Occupancy, Duties and obligations of a Holder of a Certificate of Occupancy, Rights of a Holder of a Certificate of Occupancy Nature of Interest Created by Right of Occupancy, How to Obtain a Certificate of Occupancy and Effects of Grant of Right of Occupancy by Government, Tenure of Right of Occupancy.
Chapter three is titled Alienation of Right of Occupancy. It starts with an Introduction, Meaning of Alienation, Nature and Scope of Alienation, Types of Alienation, Consequences of Alienation Without consent and Legal Restriction on Alienation of Land.
Chapter four deals with An Analysis of The Requirement of Governor‟s Consent for Alienation under the Land Use Act, It starts with Introduction, Brief History of Consent Requirement, One Who Seeks for Governor‟s Consent, Philosophical Basis for Governor‟s Consent, Emerging Issues of Governor‟s Consent Since Savannah v. Ajilo and Problems with Securing.
Chapter five is a Summary and Conclusion which comprises, Summary, Findings,
Recommendations, and Conclusion.

Get Complete Materials




Customary inheritance as a hindrance to gender equality

Price: 4000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION





1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The patterns of inheritance and succession, particularly under intestate estate
under customary law in Nigeria, have almost as many variations as there are ethnic
groups in the country, and many of the variations are discriminatory in practice. The law of succession and inheritance reflects Nigeria's plural legal system. Indigenous customary law developed rules of inheritance for intestacy through the traditional canon of descent, as adapted over the years to changes in the society and the rule of natural justice as applied by the courts. Fortunately, nongovernmental organizations have been active in attempting to rectify the problems of discrimination.
Rather than trying to cover all the patterns of succession, I examine a few of the
succession patterns, with particular reference to the discriminatory aspects under
customary law. I also propose reforms. Finally, I recognize the important work done by nongovernmental organizations in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
While the law of inheritance and succession under English law is reasonably
settled, the aspect dealing with customary law is not, which breeds conflict and acrimony among heirs. What's more, the law discriminates among beneficiaries. Some are accorded rights of inheritance and others are not. Consequently, this customary law falls under the repugnancy doctrine test and, more important, international conventions against discrimination.
One example is the Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), an international document that establishes standards of equality between women and men. The convention was adopted by the United General Assembly on 18 December 1979, and was made binding on ratifying
states on 3 September 1981. CEDAW provides a framework for developing and applying equality norms to specific conditions in different countries and legal systems. This international bill of rights for women also stands as an agenda for action to guarantee these rights. In its preamble, the convention states that extensive discrimination against women continues to exist, and it emphasizes that such discrimination violates the principles of equality of rights and respect for human dignity. Article I of the convention defines discrimination against women as “any distinction, exclusion, or restriction made on the basis of sex in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.”
Article I further defines discrimination against women as anything that can bring
about unequal treatment between men and women while carrying out their livelihood.
This article groups married and unmarried women together. Article 13 stipulates in part that women have the right to obtain family benefits, while Article 15 states, inter alia, that women have equal rights with men in matters of law related to business contracts. Under Article 16, women are empowered to own and give away their property. State parties to the convention are obliged to refrain from acts that would defeat the object and purpose of the convention—namely, the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. Each party must report on its progress to the committee. The implementation of the convention is monitored by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), which is composed of 23 experts elected by state parties.
The Committee meets annually in New York. Gender discrimination is currently receiving the attention of the world community. The position of women in law and society has attracted public sympathy and interest.
Apart from CEDAW, other documents apply, such as the African charter—a
regional bill—and national Constitutions that prohibit discrimination on the ground of sex in all categories of rights. Having ratified the CEDAW treaty, Nigeria is generally bound by its provisions, so any laws or procedures to the contrary must be declared null and void. Unfortunately, Nigerian courts have long sustained some of the customary practices that subjugate women, as demonstrated in the case of Nwanya v. Nwanya. The case of Mojekwu v. Mojekwu, however, has marked a turning point. The Court of Appeal in that case struck down, as repugnant to natural justice, equity, and good conscience, the Oli-ekpe custom in Ibo land, which bars women from inheriting land.
The law of succession basically deals with testate methods of inheritance, and the
rules governing them differ. When a man dies, the devolution of his self-acquired property depends upon whether he has made a will. If he has made a will, the property devolves according to the will. If no will exists—that is, under the condition of intestacy—his property devolves in accordance with the applicable customary law. Discriminations exist in both cases, but especially under intestacy. Discrimination thus exists in the method of distribution under various customary laws. Unfair practices allow some to inherit while others cannot.
The discriminatory aspects of property inheritance under customary law in
Nigeria manifests in different forms and scope ranging from primogeniture rules, right of spouses, rights of adopted children and rights of illegitimate child; although it is generally agreed rule under customary law of intestate succession and inheritance that succession goes by blood.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
This research aims at ascertaining the applicability of the concept of customary inheritance as a hindrance to gender equality, through and examination of the legal and institutional frameworks on the subject matter in Nigeria. In view of this therefore, the objectives of this paper are as follows.
i. An examination of the practice and mode of customary inheritance in Nigeria vis-à-vis the adequacy or otherwise the inadequacies of the laws regulating
gender equality Nigeria.
ii. An examination of the factors militating against the practice of customary inheritance in Nigeria
iii. An examination of extent does the Nigeria custom of inheritance reflect regional and global standards on equal status of women
iv. The highlights of the salient features of the practice in contemporary society
v. The practice of inheritance in the Nigeria customary law impinge on the livelihood and security of women in the society
vi. Finally, to profer measures for addressing the problems identified in the
course of the study so as to have a smooth operation of inheritance in
Nigeria like other jurisdictions.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The significance for this study stems from disparities between the application of 'lawyers' customary law' and the practice of 'people's customary law'. This discrepancy tends to undermine the effectiveness of the state legal system in addressing gender inequalities. This challenge is more pronounced in the complex and pluralistic context of the Nigeria legal system. It becomes imperative to explore the possibility of legal reforms and pragmatic policy options that could better align common law incentives with those of customary law.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
The area of coverage for this research as earlier stated is to appraise the
legality of the practice of customary inheritance in Nigeria. Though, the research will be majorly in the Nigerian context and other Africa country, but a short reference may also be made to other jurisdictions where customary law holds
sway.



1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Overall, the study will strive to determine the impact of the practice and administration of customary laws of inheritance on gender equality Nigeria society by providing answers to these specific research questions:
1. To what extent does the practice of inheritance in the Nigeria customary law impinge on the livelihood and security of women in the society?
2. What are the highlights of the salient features of the practice in contemporary society?
3. To what extent does the Nigeria custom of inheritance reflect regional and global standards on equal status of women?
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This study will adopt a theoretical approach, which would involve critical review of important scholarly literature on conceptual issues in legal theory, constitutional developments in British colonial Africa, the Nigerian legal system, customary and religious laws, and will invoke a multidisciplinary approach towards reaching acceptable goals on issues of gender equality. This project would also use descriptive and analytical methods to review constitutions, legislation and case law relevant to the subject matter. Basically, it will apply the desktop library method. The writer shall also make use of secondary sources of materials
which include textbooks, journals, encyclopedia, workshop material, internet
materials

Get Complete Materials