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Tuesday, September 19, 2017

ANALYSIS OF PREDICTING STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION







1.1 Background of the Study
Predicting student academic performance has long been an important research topic. Among the issues of education system, questions concerning admissions into academic institutions (secondary and tertiary level) remain important (Ting, 2008). The main objective of the admission system is to determine the candidates who would likely perform well after being accepted into the school. The quality of admitted students has a great influence on the level of academic performance, research and training within the institution. The failure to perform an accurate admission decision may result in an unsuitable student being admitted to the program. Hence, admission officers want to know more about the academic potential of each student. Accurate predictions help admission officers to distinguish between suitable and unsuitable candidates for an academic program, and identify candidates who would likely do well in the school (Ayan and Garcia, 2013). The results obtained from the prediction of academic performance may be used for classifying students, which enables educational managers to offer them additional support, such as customized assistance and tutoring resources.
The results of this prediction can also be used by instructors to specify the most suitable teaching actions for each group of students, and provide them with further assistance tailored to their needs. In addition, the prediction results may help students develop a good understanding of how well or how poorly they would perform, and then develop a suitable learning strategy. Accurate prediction of student achievement is one way to enhance the quality of education and provide better educational services (Romero and Ventura, 2007). Different approaches have been applied to predicting student academic performance, including traditional mathematical models and modern data mining techniques. In these approaches, a set of mathematical formulas was used to describe the quantitative relationships between outputs and inputs (i.e., predictor variables). The prediction is accurate if the error between the predicted and actual values is within a small range.
In machine learning and cognitive science, artificial neural networks (ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKs) are a family of statistical learning models inspired by biological neural networks (the central nervous systems of animals, in particular the brain) and are used to estimate or approximate functions that can depend on a large number of inputs and are generally unknown. Artificial neural networks are generally presented as systems of interconnected "neurons" which exchange messages between each other. The connections have numeric weights that can be tuned based on experience, making neural nets adaptive to inputs and capable of learning. For example, a neural network for handwriting recognition is defined by a set of input neurons which may be activated by the pixels of an input image. After being weighted and transformed by a function (determined by the network's designer), the activations of these neurons are then passed on to other neurons. This process is repeated until finally, an output neuron is activated. This determines which character was read.
The artificial neural network (ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK), a soft computing technique, has been successfully applied in different fields of science, such as pattern recognition, fault diagnosis, forecasting and prediction. However, as far as we are aware, not much research on predicting student academic performance takes advantage of artificial neural network. Kanakana and Olanrewaju (2001) utilized a multilayer perception neural network to predict student performance. They used the average point scores of grade 12 students as inputs and the first year college results as output. The research showed that an artificial neural network based model is able to predict student performance in the first semester with high accuracy. A multiple feed-forward neural network was proposed to predict the students’ final achievement and to classify them into two groups. In their work, a student achievement prediction method was applied to a 10-week course. The results showed that accurate prediction is possible at an early stage, and more specifically at the third week of the 10-week course.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The observed poor academic performance of some Nigerian students (tertiary and secondary) in recent times has been partly traced to inadequacies of the National University Admission Examination System. It has become obvious that the present process is not adequate for selecting potentially good students. Hence there is the need to improve on the sophistication of the entire system in order to preserve the high integrity and quality. It should be noted that this feeling of uneasiness of stakeholders about the traditional admission system, which is not peculiar to Nigeria, has been an age long and global problem. Kenneth Mellamby (1956) observed that universities worldwide are not really satisfied by the methods used for selecting undergraduates. While admission processes in many developed countries has benefited from, and has been enhanced by, various advances in information science and technology, the Nigerian system has yet to take full advantage of these new tools and technology. Hence this study takes a scientific approach to tackling the problem of admissions by seeking ways to make the process more effective and efficient. Specifically the study seeks to explore the possibility of using an Artificial Neural Network model to predict the performance of a student before admitting the student.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To examine the use of Artificial Neural Network in predicting students academic performance.
2. To examine the mode of operation of Artificial Neural Network.
3. To identify other approaches of predicting students academic performance.


1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will educate on the design and implementation of Artificial Neural Network. It will also educate on how Artificial Neural Network can be used in predicting student’s academic performance.
This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
1.6 Scope/Limitations of the Study
This study will cover the mode of operation of Artificial Neural Network and how it can be used to predict student academic performance.
Limitation of Study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.7 Definition Of Terms
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in a brain. Here, each circular node represents an artificial neuron and an arrow represents a connection from the output of one neuron to the input of another.



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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF WEB BASE PREDICTING STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

Price: 2000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION







1.1 Background of the Study
Predicting student academic performance has long been an important research topic. Among the issues of education system, questions concerning admissions into academic institutions (secondary and tertiary level) remain important (Ting, 2008). The main objective of the admission system is to determine the candidates who would likely perform well after being accepted into the school. The quality of admitted students has a great influence on the level of academic performance, research and training within the institution. The failure to perform an accurate admission decision may result in an unsuitable student being admitted to the program. Hence, admission officers want to know more about the academic potential of each student. Accurate predictions help admission officers to distinguish between suitable and unsuitable candidates for an academic program, and identify candidates who would likely do well in the school (Ayan and Garcia, 2013). The results obtained from the prediction of academic performance may be used for classifying students, which enables educational managers to offer them additional support, such as customized assistance and tutoring resources.
The results of this prediction can also be used by instructors to specify the most suitable teaching actions for each group of students, and provide them with further assistance tailored to their needs. In addition, the prediction results may help students develop a good understanding of how well or how poorly they would perform, and then develop a suitable learning strategy. Accurate prediction of student achievement is one way to enhance the quality of education and provide better educational services (Romero and Ventura, 2007). Different approaches have been applied to predicting student academic performance, including traditional mathematical models and modern data mining techniques. In these approaches, a set of mathematical formulas was used to describe the quantitative relationships between outputs and inputs (i.e., predictor variables). The prediction is accurate if the error between the predicted and actual values is within a small range.
In machine learning and cognitive science, artificial neural networks (ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKs) are a family of statistical learning models inspired by biological neural networks (the central nervous systems of animals, in particular the brain) and are used to estimate or approximate functions that can depend on a large number of inputs and are generally unknown. Artificial neural networks are generally presented as systems of interconnected "neurons" which exchange messages between each other. The connections have numeric weights that can be tuned based on experience, making neural nets adaptive to inputs and capable of learning. For example, a neural network for handwriting recognition is defined by a set of input neurons which may be activated by the pixels of an input image. After being weighted and transformed by a function (determined by the network's designer), the activations of these neurons are then passed on to other neurons. This process is repeated until finally, an output neuron is activated. This determines which character was read.
The artificial neural network (ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK), a soft computing technique, has been successfully applied in different fields of science, such as pattern recognition, fault diagnosis, forecasting and prediction. However, as far as we are aware, not much research on predicting student academic performance takes advantage of artificial neural network. Kanakana and Olanrewaju (2001) utilized a multilayer perception neural network to predict student performance. They used the average point scores of grade 12 students as inputs and the first year college results as output. The research showed that an artificial neural network based model is able to predict student performance in the first semester with high accuracy. A multiple feed-forward neural network was proposed to predict the students’ final achievement and to classify them into two groups. In their work, a student achievement prediction method was applied to a 10-week course. The results showed that accurate prediction is possible at an early stage, and more specifically at the third week of the 10-week course.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The observed poor academic performance of some Nigerian students (tertiary and secondary) in recent times has been partly traced to inadequacies of the National University Admission Examination System. It has become obvious that the present process is not adequate for selecting potentially good students. Hence there is the need to improve on the sophistication of the entire system in order to preserve the high integrity and quality. It should be noted that this feeling of uneasiness of stakeholders about the traditional admission system, which is not peculiar to Nigeria, has been an age long and global problem. Kenneth Mellamby (1956) observed that universities worldwide are not really satisfied by the methods used for selecting undergraduates. While admission processes in many developed countries has benefited from, and has been enhanced by, various advances in information science and technology, the Nigerian system has yet to take full advantage of these new tools and technology. Hence this study takes a scientific approach to tackling the problem of admissions by seeking ways to make the process more effective and efficient. Specifically the study seeks to explore the possibility of using an Artificial Neural Network model to predict the performance of a student before admitting the student.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To examine the use of Artificial Neural Network in predicting students academic performance.
2. To examine the mode of operation of Artificial Neural Network.
3. To identify other approaches of predicting students academic performance.
4. To develop an Artificial Intelligent application that will guide student with their grade.

1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will educate on the design and implementation of Artificial Neural Network. It will also educate on how Artificial Neural Network can be used in predicting student’s academic performance.
This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
1.6 Scope/Limitations of the Study
This study will cover the mode of operation of Artificial Neural Network and how it can be used to predict student academic performance.
Limitation of Study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.7 Definition Of Terms
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in a brain. Here, each circular node represents an artificial neuron and an arrow represents a connection from the output of one neuron to the input of another.
HTML CODE: - HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a type of computer language that is primarily used for files that are posted on the internet and viewed by web browsers. HTML files can also be sent via email.

Markup language: - A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. For example, a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type.

Web browser: -A Web browser is a software program that interprets the coding language of the World Wide Web in graphic form, displaying the translation rather than the coding. This allows anyone to “browse the Web” by simple point and click navigation, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages.

File extension: - A file extension is the suffix at the end of a filename that tells a computer, and the computer user, which program is needed to open the file. Also called a filename extension, this suffix preceded by at least one period, is generally one to five characters long but the norm is usually three characters in length.

Email: - Email, also sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of electronic mail, a protocol for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages. Email has gained popularity with the spread of the Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method of communication.

TCP/IP: - This often used but little understood set of operations stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the combination of the two and describes the set of protocols that allows hosts to connect to the Internet. In actuality, TCP/IP is a combination of ``more than those two protocols, but the TCP and IP parts of TCP/IP are the main ones and the only ones to become part of the acronym that describes the operations involved.


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Saturday, September 16, 2017

AN EXAMINATION OF THE PROTECTION OF WOMEN’S RIGHT TO HEALTH UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA.

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT





Every individual is entitled to the full protection of their rights because they are human
beings. Men and women also experience health challenges but because women go
through some biological and social processes that carry health risks like pregnancy and
child birth they require adequate health care to be able to fulfil these roles. The research
aimed to examine women’s right to health as a neglected issue that leads to maternal and
infant mortality; to examine women’s right to health as a fundamental human right whose
importance is such that no derogation should be encouraged and also to explain how
socio-cultural practises contribute to abuse of women’s right to health. The main
objective of the research is to show that the Nigerian legal system has not been able to
capture the extent of women’s right to health under several international Conventions
that Nigeria is a party to. In line with these aims and objectives, questionnaire and
interview survey was administered on health professionals and women, hospitals were
also visited in order to determine how lack of healthcare facilities and personnel affect
the status of women’s health in Nigeria. The methodology used in the research is both
empirical and doctrinal. The research observed that there is a plethora of international
and national laws and instruments that aim at protecting women’s right to health but lack
of political will on the part of government and cultural beliefs hinder the enforcement of
some of these laws. An analysis was made of the international and domestic legal
framework for the protection of women’s right to health in Nigeria, the challenges
militating against the protection of these rights were discussed and recommendations
were proffered that Nigeria should be willing to perform its obligations under the
international convention to which she is a party including the Protocol to the African
Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights in Africa also known as the Maputo Protocol,
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW),
International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) et cetera. Judicial Activism should be
encouraged in Nigeria. The right to health should be treated as an extension of the right
to life as has been done in India. This is because the provisions of Chapter 11 of the
Indian Constitution are pari materia with Chapter 11 of the Nigerian Constitution on
Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy.

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF MORTGAGES AS COLLATERAL IN NIGERIA



Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT







The challenge identified by this research was the manner of collaterisation of credits
by financial institutions. It was discovered that due to the volume of funds available at
the disposal of financial institutions as a result of the consolidation exercise and stiff
competition towards making substantial margin of profits, some financial institutions
often comprise or even ignore standard in giving out credit to their customers because
of a combination of factors viz:
 Insider credits
 Desire to make huge profits
 Political reasons
 Ethnic considerations
Thus, as a result of the above factors, financial institutions often get saddled with lots
of bad debts which usually militate against the growth of an organization with the
likelihood of distress and corporate failure since the credits were not given based on business
considerations. To arrest this situation, regulatory authorities like the Central Bank of
Nigeria and the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation should commence the
enforcement of the provisions of the Banks and Other Financial Institutions Act which
provides for various categories of offences and penalties relating to Bank officers who
give credit facilities that were supposed to be backed by security, without such
securities.

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE MARKETING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS IN THE DOWNSTREAM SECTOR OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA


Price: 8000 Naira

ABSTRACT





Hitherto, to many, the concept of oil and gas was limited to the search for, work and win
crude oil. So, for many decades, nations only concerned themselves with upstream petroleum
activities. The availability of crude oil determines the extent of relevance a nation
commanded at the global scene. This fact is amplified by the role Nigeria played in the
struggle to rid Africa of colonial vestiges. The marketing of petroleum products (downstream
sector activities) is therefore brought to the fore of the national petroleum industry. The
issues of oil and gas in Nigeria are very topical and sensitive. The products of oil and gas are
present in every home in Nigeria. Arising from this, the government became very much
involved in the supply and distribution of its product. Various laws, including the Petroleum
Equalization Fund (Act) Instituted as a result of the problems associated with the petroleum
distribution, were put in place to govern the petroleum industry. However, there appear to be
inconsistencies between these laws and what actually obtains. This research principally
adopted a doctrinal research methodology which relied on existing statutes, subsidiary
legislation and literature on petroleum products marketing. It analyzed the issues and drew
inferences which culminated in the findings. This dissertation found that the legal framework
for the regulation of the downstream sector of the petroleum industry is not robust and
comprehensive; that there is conflict of functions between the Petroleum Minister and the
Petroleum Products Pricing and Regulatory Agency. This is with respect to the fixing of the
prices petroleum products. This conflicting function does not make for improvement of
effective pricing of petroleum products as it does not allow market forces to determine the
price; that the functions of government regulatory agencies such as the Nigerian National
Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR), the
Petroleum Products Marketing Company (PPMC) and the Petroleum Products Pricing and
Regulatory Agency (PPPRA) are overlapping and therefore work at cross purposes; that the
Petroleum Equalization Fund put in place for the sole purpose of unifying the pump prices of
petroleum products across the country is ineffective, fraught with corruption and has resulted
in waste of financial resources; and that government involvement in downstream activities
makes law enforcement weak and ineffective. This research therefore recommended a
restructuring and reforming of the legal framework and regulatory bodies for the Nigerian
Petroleum Industry through the passage of the Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB); existing laws
should be reviewed for effective regulation with the roles of government agencies clearly
defined; that the Petroleum Equalization Fund be repealed; and that government should exit
participating in the downstream sector (through the Nigerian National Petroleum
Corporation) and only be a regulator.

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE IN INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW


Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT






This thesis entitled “An Examination of the Crime of Genocide under International
Humanitarian Law” dealt with crime of genocide as an act of aggression which of recent
presented serious threats to international peace and security. This is because this crime when
committed within a particular state lead to murder of innocent people to such alarming
propositions that the international community could not ignore. Global incidences of the
commission of the crime of genocide led to concerted efforts of the United Nations to make
genocide an international crime so that its perpetrators could be brought to justice through
punishment. On this note, this thesis aimed at examining the legal framework of the crime of
genocide through the study of the various constitutive international instruments on the crime of
genocide and also that of the International Criminal Court (ICC) as the judicial institution
responsible for fight against genocide in International Law. However, the statement of problem
of this research is that following the recent experiences in the commission of the crime of
genocide the international community has found it difficult to bring perpetrators for punishment
before the international criminal court due to one reason or the other. For example, the
consideration of the circumstances to be designated as genocide by the Rome Statute is not clear.
In addition, it is noteworthy to state here that, a fundamental issue which generated the interest
of the writer in this area of research is that there is no corresponding will by states to prevent
the commission of the crime or stop it from escalating. State parties and indeed even the United
Nations always fail to use the term Genocide to describe hostilities that clearly fall within the
meaning of the crime of Genocide. Thus, United Nations and state parties usually capitalize on
the loopholes and inherent defects in the laws of Genocide to suit their political purposes. For
instance the persistence of Genocide in Bangladesh, Uganda, Cambodia, Rwanda (Hutus and
Tutsis) and Bosnian Muslims in the former Yugoslavia are testimonies of failure of intervention
by the international community to stop high profile atrocities. Indeed, when ethnic cleansing was
going on in the territory of former Yugoslavia, Darfur, Rwanda between Tutsis and Hutus, the
United Nations, the US government and other countries were called upon to intervened but they
failed. Against this backdrop therefore, the objective of this thesis was to identify the factors
militating against the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide and to proffer possible
measures solutions to addressing them; and further to consider the possibility of adopting same
measures in Nigeria so as to eradicate instance of genocide in the country in view of the present
Nigerian experiences. In view of this therefore, the finding of the writer was that the general
weakness of international law constitutes a major problem of lack of enforcement to the
institution of the punishment and prevention of genocide. In this regard, the writer concluded by
recommending (among others) that the governments of Member States of the international
community particularly the Security Council should be proactive, effective, prompt and
jurisprudentially sound on the improvement and enforcement of the international legal processes
that hold individuals accountable to the law so that, never again should would-be violators of
these laws succeed in claiming that they are entitled to hide behind a wall of sovereignty.

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE CONCEPT OF FISCAL FEDERALISM AND TAX LEGISLATION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE


Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT






This work is prompted by the shortage of revenue accruing to the federating units in
Nigeria. It exposes the potential of taxation as an alternative and or additional revenue
source to the federating states in Nigeria. Using the doctrinal method of research, this
work espouses the potentials of taxation as a viable means of generating revenue for the
federating States in Nigeria. The work analyses the problems bedeviling the
implementation of taxation as a source of revenue generation in Nigeria under the current
legal frame work, it reviewed the approach adopted by Lagos State in its quest for fiscal
independence. Based on the review of Lagos State approach, the work provided the
possible solutions to the over dependence of the other states on the revenue accruable
from the Federation Account by providing possible means that other States could use in
other to attain the success of using taxation as a means of achieving fiscal independence as
currently enjoyed by Lagos State. It was found that Nigeria‘s Federal structure allows
states to enact laws on taxation but the laws are over centralized in the federal legislature
based on the interpretation of the provisions of the constitution and the items in both the
exclusive and concurrent legislative list in the constitution. Corruption and absence of
political will affects the ability of the state to obtain optimal tax success in Nigeria. It is
recommended that a Constitutional review will assist in achieving tax prosperity for the
component states, in the meanwhile, an active State House of Assembly that has the
potential of ensuring a tax legislation that is not an infringement of the current legal
regime can assist states in attaining tax prosperity. Good governance and accountability
has the potential of bringing the Nigerian people on board the policy of taxation.

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE CAUSES OF JURISTIC DIFFERENCES IN INTERPRETATION IN ISLAMIC LAW


Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT






Differing is inevitable among people, because of individual natural
differences regarding thinking, understanding, power of assimilation, intellect,
etc. Thus, differences and contradictions are a natural outcome. Incidentally
people have grossly misconceived differences of opinion among the jurists
either due to their ignorance or lack of understanding of the nature of texts of
the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and where the text is silent.Modern advocacy for
adherence to hadith that has emerged in recent time, has painted a sordid
picture of the classical jurists, depicting their works as mere academic
exercise. This notion needs to be corrected. Otherwise, the Shari’ah will, in
turn, not be suitable and applicable to new situations for which there is no
decisive ruling in both the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah.The aim is to show
that the nature of the Qur’anic provisions makes the phenomenon of Ikhatilaaf
(difference of opinion) among the jurists inevitable, that the nature of the
provisions found in the Sunnah gives room for difference of opinion in
interpretation among the jurists and that apparent Silence of the Shari’ah
regarding some matters has contributed on a large scale, to difference of
opinion among the jurists. The juristic differences that arose among the jurists
have been contrasted under the following main causes namely; the nature of
the Qur’an provisions, the nature of the texts of the Sunnah and silence of the
texts term both the Qur’an and the Sunnah.The research methodology of the
thesis was doctrinal. In the course of the research, some findings were made.
The research found that the nature of evidences found in the Qur’an and the
Sunnah give room for interpretation and as a result of that, differences prevail
among the jurists of Islamic law. The research recommends that causes of
juristic differences in interpretation in Islamic Law should be taken as a course
for Islamic Law students in our Universities.

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PRODUCTIVITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA


Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT






This project is a review “Productivity and Human Resource development in Nigeria case study of Imo State civil servant”. The problem identified was Work motivation and compensation, Ethics and Values, Work Attitude and Recruitment and Selection Process. This write up showed the relevant literature concerning the project topic. It goes further to explain HRM and Productivity in Nigeria, Using a study of Imo State civil servant. The descriptive survey method was used and the research tool was questionnaire. 250 staffs answered the questionnaire. Frequency
percentages and criterion mean score of 2.5 were used in data analysis using Chi-square formula and presentation was done by the use of tables. The findings from the study showed that the factors of Productivity and Human Resource development in Nigeria. Finally, solutions and recommendations were proffered, in which emphasis was made on the remedies. The write up is duly summarized.






CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The development of any nation depends to a very large extent on the calibre, organization and motivation of its human resources. In the specific case of Nigeria where diversity exerts tremendous influence on politics and administration, the capacity to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of this diversity constitutes a human resource management challenge of epic proportion in its public sector organizations. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization's goals and objectives. Human Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of
employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate.

HRM covers a wide range of activities. The main area of study we will focus on will be incentives and work organization. Incentives include remuneration systems (e.g. individuals or group incentive/contingent pay) and also the system of appraisal, promotion and career advancement. By work organization we mean the distribution of decision rights (autonomy/decentralization) between managers and workers, job design (e.g. flexibility of working, job rotation), team-working (e.g. who works with whom) and information provision.

Human resource management encompasses the traditional personnel functions of recruitment, selection, training, motivation, compensation, evaluation, discipline, and termination of employees. Each of those tasks demands particular skills. Increasingly, human resource management is being recognized for its strategic importance to organizations and jurisdictions, and is moving beyond its traditional position as a monitor of compliance. This course is designed to provide you with an understanding of the evolution of human resource management policies and practices, and how changes over time reflect shifting societal values and environmental circumstances. Our emphasis is on improving understanding of the
historical context and current conditions of public sector HRM and developing basic skills necessary to be an effectively manage human resources.

According to Likert (1996:112) the term human resource refers to the talents.” Thus the term connets man in relationship to the world of works. Such work involves producing things and providing services of all kinds in the social political, cultural and economic development of a nation.

“Human resources management is simply described as the management of the human resources in an organization for optimal utilization and attainment of organizational objectives” Banjoko (1996:69) AS opined by Harbinson (1998 :213) man power refers to human beings i.e. human
resources of an organization or nation regardless of their skill. They make
organizations functions”. Karen (1999:89) looks at manpower as a unique
resource. It is an indispensable means of converting all other resources to
mankind use and benefits” How well it is used determines how well an organization performs. Human resources management takes place within
the frame work of an organization in a purpose constrict, deliberately
designed to achieve certain goals. The efficiency with which that organization is operated will depend to a large extent on how utilized. For a manager to be effective, the manager has to design a programme which ensures the selection and training of employees for the jobs that best suit their abilities and motivating them to exert that maximum effort for the attainment of the corporate objective.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLM

The management of any organization be it profit or non profit oriented institution or organization is often faced with one common problem. This problem normally has to do with the efficient and effective utilization of resources for the attainment and of organization goals and objectives. The set goals and objectives clearly justify the existence of any organization and therefore its realization or non-realization determines the survival or untimely death of such organization. The need to realize organizational objectives imposed on management a variety of problems which management needs to tackle from time to time. It has often been
discovered that improper and poor management of human resources in organizations usually leads to problems such as.

1. High labour turnover

2. Low employee morale

3. Lack of job satisfaction

4. Reduced creativity and sturned growth on the part of the employee
5. Lack of employee motivation which often result in low employee productivity and
6. Reduce corporate profitability and threatened growth and survival
of the organization.
The effects of these problems on employee productivity and how it
could be reduced or eliminated completely to enhance productivity via
effective human resources management is what the research is set to
achieve.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of the study are to critically assess the productivity and humam resource development in Nigeria Organization with a view to:
1) Identifying the importance of HRM to an organization in Nigeria
2) Identifying the need for HRM in an organization
3) Identifying problems associated with HRM in organizations.
4) Examine the trend and techniques of HRM in organizations
5) Reviewing the process of HRM and its impact on organization
productivity
6) Identifying the relationship between effective HRM and
organizational profitability.
7) Identifying the problems associated with HRM and profer solutions
to them.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization?
2. What is the evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization?
3. What is the significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization?
4. What is the evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses are tested.
The researcher uses hypotheses HO which is a test of no difference
HO1: There is evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization.
HO2: There is evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization.
HO3: There is a significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization.
HO4: There is evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Human Resource Management is the backbone of any economy production of any nation.
HRM plays a vital role in the productivity of the Nigeria public sector organizations. It is therefore important to identify the significances of the research work which are subdivided as:
1. The findings of this research will serve as a guide in the productivity of other public sector through their human resource.
2. The findings of this study will enable for proper management of human resource
which will lead to effective customer value and productivity in public sector
organization management.
3. It will also enhance government, private sector and general public participation
contribution in addressing these human resource management in public sector
organization.
4. The study will enable me to contribute my own views and ideas on managing human resource and productivity in the civil servant of Nigeria.
5. The study will be of immense help to other people and students who might wish to carry out other researches in the field.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The work is on Productivity and human resource development in Nigeria, with Civil servant as a case. It will cover the concept of productivity; examine Human Resource Management in Public Sector, the impact of HRM on Productivity in civil servant and also the challenges of Human Resource Management in Public Sector.


1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:
1. The limitation of the research title as just HRM and Productivity in the Nigeria civil servant.
2. Financial Limitation.
3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
(a) Document study: Ikeagwu (1998:89), a document study refers to
the study of any written material that contains information about
the happenings that are being studied.
(b) Manpower: Harbinso (1998:106) refers manpower as human
being i.e. human resources of an organization for optional
utilization and attainment of organizational objectives.
(c) Manpower development: According to Kennedy (1961:57) this is
a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who
have educational skills and experience, and motivation which are
critical for economic and social development of an organization. It
includes investment by society in education, investment by
employer’s in training and investment by individual in time and
money in their own development.
(d) Productivity by (Mail, 1978:42) is seen as reaching the highest
level of performance with the least expenditure of resources. It
represents the output of goods and services which can be obtained
from a given input indices as manpower const/unit of output,
manpower cost as a ratio of sales, per employee and contribution
per employee. Internal and external either through reduction in number of mechanization by Bedium (1987:80).
(e) Training: Is defined as discipline and instruction which improve
character through exercises to achieve objectives or goals
efficiently. Rom Herzog (1977:102).
(f) Staff appraisal: Refers to critical pessssssrformance appraisal it
plays important role in determine who has potential for
development (Banjoko, 1996:46). Each manager or head of
department filling a form over viewing certain areas of
performance of the subordinates normally carries it out. The form
which each manager is expected to complete in respect of the staff
has various columns for recording salient aspects of an employee’s
contribution over a period of twelve months.
(g) Compensation what the employees receive in exchange for their
contribution to the organization Kertk, (1996:8).
(h) Manpower Plan: Is action steps to meet manpower need. It is
specific action plan or blue prints for bridging the gap between the
forecast and the inventory to be met as a result of changes in the
existing workforce. Specific plans will have to be developed for the
recruitment training and transfer of the necessary personnel. Karek,
(1999:102).

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Friday, September 15, 2017

AN EXAMINATION OF TAX ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT MECHANISMS UNDER THE FEDERAL INLAND REVENUE SERVICE ACT, 2007

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

From the inception of modern taxation in Nigeria in the first decade of the 20th century the problem of poor tax administration has been the cankerworms that militate against an optimum revenue generation which affect negatively the government ability to render essential services to the citizenry. With the above problems in mind, various reforms were initiated aimed at improving the standard of tax administration in order to ensure an improved revenue generation by the government. The first of such reform were the Native Revenue Proclamation of 1906 which systematized all pre-colonial taxes that existed in Northern Nigeria which was re-issued in 1914 and extended to the West and East in 1918 and 1927 respectively. Other reforms followed in 1943, 1958 (Income Tax Ordinance of 1958), 1961 (Companies Income Tax Act No 22 of 1961) and 1993 (Finance Miscellaneous Taxation Provision Act of 1993).The above reforms all aimed at improving the standard of tax administration in Nigeria. Major reform in the history of tax administration however came in 2007 with the granting of administrative and financial autonomy to the Federal Inland Revenue Service and establishment of more effective disputes settlement mechanisms within the system by the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act. 2007 (FIRS Act). The passage of FIRS Act, was an actualization of a longtime reform started a century and a year ago precisely in 1906. For the first time in the history of tax administration in Nigeria the FIRS by the 2007 Act were empowered with various administrative and enforcement mechanisms that allow a taxpayer to assess himself for tax and empowered the FIRS to enforce payment internally through various mechanisms such as Distrain, Surcharge, Substitution, and Surtax etc. It was in the light of these reforms that this researcher carried out a study of the new reform through the FIRS Act, and analyses the various administrative and enforcement mechanisms provided by the new Act (FIRS Act) and considered their efficiency and effectiveness in improving the standard of tax administration in Nigeria. The study however found that the Act contained an unnecessary and controversial policy of centralization of tax administration, a possible reduction of powers of various States Board of Internal Revenue and other gaps in the provisions of the Act and recommended solutions by way of amendments of some provisions of the Act. which the researcher believed if implemented will go a long way in ensuring an efficient tax administration regime of our dream.

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AN EXAMINATION OF INVESTORS’ PROTECTION UNDER NIGERIAN LAW

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

A company has over time proven to be a very viable form of business, the company has grown tremendously in size and number of shareholders base making it necessary that a few people be selected to manage the company on behalf of the investors since all of them Laws are put in place to put a check on these managers to prevent corporate abuse and ensure that the company is managed with due care and skill to the benefit of the investors. This research has shown that the government lacks the will and determination for the prompt implementation of its laws despite all the efforts made in providing the law, there are also some loopholes can through which fraudulent and dishonest persons can take advantage of for their own personal gains thereby defeating the very essence of the laws which are investors protection. An examination of some of the laws provided to protect investors in Nigeria shows their inadequacies and the fact that it has become a mere academic exercise, ink on paper and is quite different from what is obtainable in practice. Doctrinal method of research was used in this research referring to statutory laws, textbooks, journals, newspapers and internet materials. The findings were that; there is the lack of will by the regulatory bodies to implement the law, company meetings have been provided as an important tool for investors’ protection in Nigeria but that has been circumvented through late delivery of the notice of meetings or inefficiency of the postal system, the Companies and Allied Matters Act did not provide for qualifications for people to be appointed as members of the audit committee and the inspectors to investigate the affairs of a company and also in a bid for the provision of Section 63 of the Companies and Allied Matters Act to provide for division of powers among the board of directors and the shareholders it ended up bringing in terms as’ good faith’ and ‘due diligence’ which are subjective terms. It is therefore recommended that; The regulatory bodies should ensure prompt implementation of its laws and policies; it should be mandatory that companies should use the message alerts and emails in addition to the traditional form of notice to inform share holders of any company meeting; The Companies and Allied Matters Act should provide for people to be appointed as members of the audit committee should be people with knowledge in accounting, company law and vast experience and section 63(4)of the Companies and Allied Matters Act should be Expunged. In conclusion it can be said that investors’ protection does not lie on the Government alone but on all stakeholders, it lies on the investors sought to be protected to be vigilant, exercise all their rights provided by law and for the regulatory bodies to live up to their role and enforce the provisions of the law when there is any violation.

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Wednesday, September 13, 2017

EFFECT OF MOTIVATION & BENEFIT ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY

Price: 6000 Naira

ABSTRACT

This study examines the relationship between Motivation and Employee productivity, using First Bank Nigeria Plc. as a case study. First Bank of Nigeria, is a Nigerian multinational bank and financial services company. It is the country’s largest financial services company serving about eight Million (8,000,000) strong customer base through over 750 nationwide branches , as well as online services, with its global reach and currently it is Nigerian's largest bank by assets. Just like any long standing big organization First Bank Plc. is faced with the problem of developing and sustaining staff engagement through motivation to achieve high employee and organization productivity and prevent low employee morale and low overall organizational performance, the paper aimed at identifying various strategies and motivational techniques that exist in the organization, determination of the best motivational techniques that bring the best out of employees and to determine ways of improving overall organizational performance through appropriate motivational approach. This study was carried out among the employees of First bank Nigeria Plc. spanning through branches and the headquarter in Lagos, Nigeria. 450 well –structured questionnaire were administered on the six (6) geopolitical zones of Nigeria where First Bank Plc is evenly represented in branches with a total of 300 questionnaires received back and passed through statistical analyses. Research questions were raised based on the research objectives and hypotheses. Chi-Square statistical test was deployed to test the various hypotheses formulated in the study. The result showed that quality of supervision has positive effect on employee motivation to work better. It was also found that workers perception on what obtained in his organization will motivate him to greater productivity. Financial motivation involving monetary rewards have greater impact on performance and organizational productivity.

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ANALYSIS OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION UNDER NIGERIAN LAW

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

The Freedom of Information Act, 2011 (FoI Act) was enacted at the end of nearly two decades of public advocacy and exactly one hundred years after the Official Secrets Act was first introduced into Nigeria as a colonial Order-in-Council. This law is Nigeria’s major legislative response to redress the balance of official secrecy, elitism and non-accountable government. The aim of this research is to provide an in-depth analysis of the right of access enshrined in the FoI Act in order to create the awareness needed to promote effective implementation of the Act and assist Nigerians know how to utilize the provisions of the Act. There is the problem of a veil of secrecy pervading public institutions in Nigeria. The result is that journalists and the populace are denied access to information that is critical for accurate reporting and unraveling the web of corruption in Nigeria. Similarly, a research institute or student is unable to produce quality work because of limited access to relevant publicly held information. It was in order to correct these anomalies that the FoI Act was enacted in the first place. Further, several exemptions have been inserted into the FoI Act, which ought to be understood and given limited application and specific scope of application. Furthermore, certain secrecy laws in the statute books are obsolete and in dire need of review to make them conform to the FoI Act. These laws include the Official Secrets Act, the Evidence Act, the Legislative Houses (Powers and Privileges Act), the Criminal Code, the Oaths Act and the Federal Civil Rules. There is also the problem of the territorial applicability of the Act to states. Against this background, this research has made certain recommendations including: training and creating awareness to make public institutions acknowledge the fact that they are bound by the FoI Act and its provisions underlie their daily decision making with regards to information management; the secrecy laws and all regulations in conflict with the FoI Act should be reviewed to make them conform with the provisions of the FoI Act; public institutions and the courts, which are saddled with power of judicial review under the Act, should clearly and narrowly interpret the exemptions provisions under the FoI Act and subject them to strict “harm” and “public interest” test. The effectiveness of the right to access information would be undermined if the exemptions are given excessively wide interpretation. Otherwise, the objective for the passage of the FoI Act as a means of encouraging more open and inclusive governance process may be defeated on grounds of the exemption provisions.

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ANALYSIS OF THE PROHIBITION OF SAME SEX MARRIAGE UNDER NIGERIAN LAW

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

Marriage as an institution has been for ages the image of unity despite differences in culture, religion and civilization, and to some extent, has reflected the belief that neither man nor woman is perfect or complete without the other. This institution of marriage is today under serious attack from many quarters such that any keen observer can discern in the secular mentality of the contemporary world, an effort to undermine its natural and religious meaning. The meaning of Marriage is today being distorted to include same sex relationships. In view of this, a law has been passed in Nigeria to protect marriage as a union of a man and a woman; thus banning, prohibiting and criminalizing all forms of same sex marriages in Nigeria. This research examines the meaning of the concept ‗Marriage‘ distinguishing it from other types of marriages ‗in quote‘ including ‗same sex marriage‘ trying to analyze the implication of redefining Marriage as a union of two Persons; analyzing the essential elements / ingredients of these marriages as well as the likely implications if accepted as marriages in Nigeria. In the course of making these analyses, the researcher took cognizance of the challenges likely to impeach the enforcement of the same sex marriage prohibition Act considering the position of the human right activists as well as other human right laws applicable to Nigeria. The researcher thus discovered that there are some lacunas in the Act as it failed to spell out in clear terms the necessary ingredients of what constitutes the offence of same sex, thereby creating opportunity for possible abuse of people‘s rights. Thus the researcher recommends that the Act be amended to fill up the loopholes and that the ban against same sex marriage in Nigeria be more strengthened by reflecting the definition of marriage as a union between a man and a woman in the constitution by amending item 61 of part 1 of the second schedule to the Constitution.

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ANALYSIS OF THE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS FOR THE PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN NIGERIA

Price: 8000 Naira

ABSTRACT

The subject of intellectual property rights without doubt, has attained considerable universal prominence, especially in its ever growing significance to the core values of human enterprises. In today’s world, the subject of intellectual property rights is so central and dynamic that it is the concern of many disciplines of law, technology, economics, health, culture, agriculture, environment, international relations, politics and more. Intellectual property has problems with political and socioeconomic contents, for example, piracy, counterfeits and imitation. This is as a result of advancement in technology touching on internet, digitalization through compact discs, industrial photocopiers and scanners. There are various numeric legal provisions, for example, Copyright Act, Trademark Act, Patent and Design Act which are supposed to deal with these problems. But because of the ever-changing development in science and technology, the laws are always behind developments or the enforcement mechanisms are weak. Also there are institutional frameworks such as the Nigerian Copyright Commission, the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, the Customs and Excise, the Federal High Court, the Nigeria Police and so forth for the administration and enforcement of intellectual property in Nigeria. At the international plane such as Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) there are laws and conventions prohibiting offences touching intellectual property. Despite these legal and institutional frameworks, piracy of copyrighted materials, counterfeit or imitation of patented products still go on unabated in this country. That is, offences bordering on intellectual property such as piracy, imitation and counterfeiting are on the increase. Without legal and institutional protection, it is doubtful if any reasonable person would dissipate energy into creating intellectual property. This dissertation examined the legal and institutional frameworks for protection of intellectual property rights in Nigeria, with the view to ascertaining their efficacy or otherwise for the protection of intellectual property rights. The need for the protection of intellectual property rights cannot be over-emphasized. Both legal and institutional protections accorded to various species of intellectual property do not only encourage the owners of such rights to engage their creative intellect in more creativity for the utility of the society, but it also serves as an incentive to others that have creative minds to put their creative intellects into uses too. In analyzing the laws and institutions doctrinal approach was used. The researcher visited some of the institutions for the enforcement of intellectual property rights, such as Nigerian Copyright Commission, National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, Trademarks and Patent and Design Registry for first hand information on the subject matter. Information was also obtained through the institutions’ websites and other relevant sites on the internet. The works of other writers were also consulted. Laws such as Copyright Act, Trademark Act, Case laws, for example, decisions of superior courts of records where relevant were used. The research found that there are some deficiencies in enforcement mechanism of institutional frameworks, for example, lack of unity of command of different agencies, for example, the Police, Copyright inspectors, Custom and Excise share failure in protecting intellectual property rights. It was further found that there are several similarities in powers and functions of agencies which create confusion, for instance the role of copyright inspectors and police in respect of copyright matters. Also noted was that trademarks, patent and design do not have enforcement institutional framework like Nigerian Copyright Commission for Copyright. Another finding was the lack of expertise of personnel, inadequate manpower, facilities for operation and poor funding of the institutions. It was recommended that by improving the legal regime, enforcing the existing laws and increasing public awareness, the government in concert with relevant public and private sectors can make significant contributions in realizing its goal of protecting intellectual property rights in Nigeria. On the institutional cooperation it is recommended that the relevant agencies of government should build stronger cooperation and coordination for effective monitoring and enforcement of intellectual property rights.

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AN OVERVIEW OF POLICING IN DEMOCRACY AND OBSERVANCE OF HUMAN RIGHSTS BY THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE

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ABSTRACT

Ever since Nigeria returned to democratic rule in 1999, there appears to be a general consensus that the true tenets of democratic policing and observance of human rights has not been fully realized. Democratic policing emphasized responsive and representative policing, accountability and transparency to the public, preventive and effective in crime control, possessing the requisite education and training as well as professionalism in all respect. All these are sourced from international best practices of what is good policing and given credence by the United Nations and other international instruments. For example, the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials serves as the model for every police organization that seeks to operate in a free democratic society. Here individual rights are guaranteed even though they are not absolute, but the police, in carrying out its duties, try to balance the equation and follow the “rules of engagement” permitted by law and not otherwise. In Nigeria however, our research findings established that the Nigeria Police Force has not completely detached itself from the apron string of bad policing as a result of ever increasing acts of Torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, extra-judicial, summary and arbitrary executions arbitrary arrests, excessive use of force, unhealthy detention centers and other human right violations. Nigeria‟s colonial past and the lacunas of the current Police Act have been identified as the militating factors inhibiting effective democratic policing. These obstacles must therefore be jettison in favour of innovative attributes that can boost democratic policing in Nigeria. For this to be achieved, behavioral, administrative and most importantly, legislative reform initiatives must be put in place. This will in no small measure enhanced and sustain good policing, democracy and the observance of human rights.

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Tuesday, September 5, 2017

AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (NEMA) IN THE PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (IDPs) IN NIGERIA

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

This thesis entitled: “An Appraisal of the Legal Framework of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) in the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Nigeria” is aimed at examining the constitutive legal instruments guiding the National Emergency Management Agency in the protection and assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria, through the study of other constitutive International instruments and standards on this subject matter. The justification for this research is the concern for the plight of the displaced persons in the last five years which has been criticized by research experts and international bodies on various grounds such as; the unwillingness of Government to take bold significant measures to address the problems of internal displacement till date, lack of long term strategic planning, implementation and evaluation framework by key Institution and, the prevalence of corruption which to a large extent disrupts humanitarian efforts, among others. However, in the course of this research, the findings of the researcher (among others) revealed that there is no specific National Legal Framework on the Protection and Assistance of displaced persons in Nigeria apart from the general provisions of fundamental human rights provided in the Nigerian Constitution which is a legal right of every citizen. On this note, the objective of this research is to principally address the gaps and inadequacies in our national laws under which the National Emergency Management Agency operates. Thus in the final analysis, the researcher concluded by recommending that apart from the general legal provisions which directly or indirectly touches on the protection and assistance of internally displaced persons,, there should be specific provisions guiding the protection and assistance of the affected population as a legal basis for which the Government and the relevant institution and stakeholders can be held directly accountable for where they do not meet the required standard. There should also be an expansion of the National Emergency Management Agency Act to equip the Agency to go beyond conducting comprehensive disaster management around the country to providing durable solutions for internally displaced persons.

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
2.0 Introduction
In most countries, it has been accepted that democracy is the only system of government that seeks to protect individual liberty and guarantee the fundamental rights of all. The pursuit of these rights is however not absolute as there exist state institutions like the police whose mandate is to maintain law and order and curtail the citizenry‟s excesses within constitutional means hence:
Police power is the exercise of the sovereign right of government to promote order, safety, health, morals, general welfare within constitutional limits and it is an essential attribute of government.‟ Indeed, the police are the outward civil authority of the power and might of a civilized country. The generality of the public is potentially affected one way or another by their action or inaction What this presupposes is that while democracy allows or guarantees freedom, the police as an institution policed that freedom and in carrying out this function, they are expected to operate within existing democratic norms, else the essence of democracy becomes defeated. This is because the role of police and the existence of these norms remain the standard benchmark in ascertaining an acceptable democratic system. As a result, most of the policing applications that are classified as democratic policing practices in an ideal society are designed to ordinarily promote democratic principles and human rights. In Nigeria however, many dilemma arose concerning the way and manner the police carry out its statutory responsibilities.
Top on the striking balance of this is the need to respect the inalienable rights of citizens while carrying out their legitimate duties. These duties ought to be performed within the context of existing rules duly fashioned and recognized. It is however regrettable that despite more than a decade of democratic governance, Nigerians are still faced with lots of human rights abuses in the hand of the police. Contrary to what democracy represents, the police is still largely authoritarian in nature2. McCulley3 opines that the state of human rights violations by police officials is becoming a culture of impunity and this includes arbitrary arrest, extra-judicial killings, illegal detention and destruction of property by security forces etc. The question therefore is how democratic is the Nigeria Police Force and how well have they imbibe democratic policing principles? What is their response level with regards to the observance of human rights since 1999? It has been correctly pointed out that the police have not performed well in this regard.

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

The effect of war has far gone beyond human suffering. Armed conflict has devastating effect on the environment. It is on record that some battlefields of the World War I and II are still unfit for human habitation and cultivation. Consequently, environmental law of war exists to provide protection to the environment during armed conflicts. This thesis examines the adequacy or otherwise of the legal framework for the protection of the environment during war time. It equally investigates the mechanisms for the enforcement of the legal regime on the protection of the environment. The main objectives of this thesis are to identify the legal framework on environmental protection during armed conflict; to examine problems if any in the enforcement of environmental law of war and to enhance access to information on the consequences of armed conflict on the environment. The thesis observes that some treaty provisions that afford protection to the environment during armed conflict are vague and imprecise. It also found that majority of the international legal framework protecting the environment during armed conflict were basically designed for international armed conflict and do not apply to non international armed conflict. Consequently, the thesis recommends, amongst other things, the establishment of new legal regime specifically for the protection of the environment during armed conflict. Similarly, countries must develop the necessary political commitment and popular support to implement fully laws and policies that enhance environment protection during wartime.

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR COMBATING TERRORISM IN NIGERIA

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

Terrorism has been a scourge both to the government and the people of Nigeria. The human and material loss recorded in recent past is enormous and has been a source of worry to all. The sources of information relied here are relevant text materials, statutes (including international instruments), judicial authorities, articles in journal publications and internet materials. The problem of this research work, therefore, is how to bring terrorism to an end in Nigeria.In view of this, the objectives of this research work, adopting a doctrinal research methodology, is therefore, to examine the legal framework for combating terrorism in Nigeria, to examine the causes of terrorism in Nigeria and to proffer solutions to the menace of terrorism in Nigeria. The major finding of this work is the conflicting role of the National Security Adviser and the Attorney General of the Federation. The 2013 Act stated that the office of the National Security Adviser shall be the coordinating body for all security and enforcement agencies under this Act while it further stated that the AG of the Federation shall be the authority for the effective implementation and administration of this Act. The role of the NSA and AGF under this Act is overlapping and is capable of frustrating the workings of this Act especially where the occupants of these offices want to show the superiority of the offices they occupy. This is a potent danger in the administration of the Act and if not looked into may derail the fight against terrorism.One of the recommendations of this research work, therefore, is the amendment of Section 1A (1) and (2) of Terrorism (Prevention) Act, 2013 which is on the powers of the National Security Adviser and that of Attorney General of the Federation to clearly delineate their roles and functions in order to strengthen the fight against terrorism.

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR COMBATING CYBERCRIME IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

The current wave of globalization and technological revolution has tremendous effect on the way people interact, carry out business transactions and store information. The internet has a vital role to play in all these. Though there are numerous advantages associated with the internet today as it has made interaction, business transactions and transfer of data easy, cybercrimes which are criminal acts carried out through the internet or through computer devices are serious threats to use of the internet or computer devices. To make matters worse, there are no comprehensive laws which address cybercrimes in most nations today and law enforcement agencies and the judiciary are not properly “equipped” to handle cybercrimes. For instance, in the course of investigating and prosecuting cybercrimes jurisdiction is always very hard to determine in cyberspace, i.e. the internet. What makes the issue of jurisdiction paramount in investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes is the fact that cybercrimes are borderless crimes as they can be committed from anywhere at any where once the cybercriminal has internet connection or has access to a computer device. The current laws regulating criminal conduct in most nations of the world today are ill-equipped to cope with these emerging cybercrimes. The old standard of classification and investigation of traditional crimes cannot meet up with the fast-changing technological advancements especially in the internet. This consequently creates an avenue for criminal minded individuals to hide behind a computer screen and deceive unsuspecting individuals who are the victims of the cybercriminal. The cybercriminal is usually faceless and his location unknown, making it easier for him to enter and exit the cyber space of the cyber victim with little or no detection. There is therefore the need to encourage the adoption of international law in combating cybercrime all over the world. The Budapest Convention on cybercrime which is the only treaty on cybercrime has numerous advantages which parties to the said convention stand to benefit from. Using Nigeria, the United States of America and the United Kingdom as contact-points of this study, this thesis has also attempted to highlight grey areas in criminal law which affects security of most people in the world today and the internet. Some of the laws considered are: Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (Establishment) Act 2004, Criminal Code Act, Cap C 38, LFN 2004, Penal Code law, Cap. 110 law of Kaduna State 1991,the Terrorism (Prevention) Act, 2013, Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act No. 1, 2011 and Money Laundering (Prohibition) (Amendment) Act 2012, the Evidence Act No.18 2011, Advance Fee Fraud and other related Offences Act No. 14, 2006, the Nigeria Cybercrime Act, 2015 and from the United Kingdom, the Computer misuse Act, 1990 the Criminal Justice Act 1978, the Police and Justice Act, 2006 and the Protection of Children Act, 1978. Jurisdiction is discussed, highlighting principles of jurisdiction from Nigeria, the United States of America and the United Kingdom.The effort in this study is not to lay claim, with certainty, to the fact that the Budapest Convention on cybercrime is the ultimate treaty on cybercrime, but to encourage the participation of the comity of nations in the only treaty on cybercrime and enacting cybercrime specific laws in all nations of the world as encouraged by the said treaty. This would encourage international cooperation in the fight against cybercrime.

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN KANO STATE

Price: 4000 Naira

ABSTRACT

Waste is the greatest danger facing mankind today therefore measures must be nationally and internationally taken to control disposal of such waste to save and provide a safer, sound and good environment. Due to the damaging effect of waste to both human beings and environment, legal machinery needs to be put in place to cater for the environment. Constitutionally the issue of making laws to cater for legal and institutional framework for waste management in Nigeria falls within concurrent legislative list empowering both the Federal and state governments to make laws on it. This research entitled “An Appraisal of Legal and Institutional Framework for Waste Management in Kano State has been embarked upon with sole aim of studying and analyzing the laws and institutions of Kano State and Federation on waste management with a bid to identify the problems and prospects. The research has discussed the conceptual clarification of key terms and equally provided analysis of legal framework for waste management. The work also considered institutions responsible for waste management in Kano State. So many problems associated with the institutions have been critically analyzed and the prospects thereof have elaborately highlighted. The method adopted was doctrinal i.e library-oriented. The scope of the research was largely the basic laws relating to environmental issues affecting waste management in Kano State. At the end of the work, finding in relations to waste management in Kano State have been made out. The research finally provides some recommendations in order to achieve the desired goal of a safer, sound and good environment.

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